ॐ Hindu Of Universe ॐ

“God’s light is within you, It never leaves you.”


Four Kumaras
According to Hindu mythology, Kumaras are four sages who traveled the world as children (Sanaka kumara, Sanatana kumara, Sanandana kumara and Sanat kumara). In the Puranas they have been described as the sons of the mind of Brahma. All their lives they went against their father and practiced celibacy. The Bhagavata Purana mentions them as an Avatar of Lord Vishnu.

The Four Kumaras, Creation of Lord Brahma
Sanaka, Sanandana, Sanatana and Sanat kumara
A man meets a virtuous person when his ‘good fortune’ arrives and his soul attains enlightenment and his mind becomes pure by the destruction of his ignorance and attachment. When Brahma decided to commence the sequence of creation, he first of all created four Kumaras by just having a wish in his mind.

They were Sanaka, Sanandana, Sanatana and Sanatkumara. Brahma had experienced the sight of Lord Vishnu sleeping on the back of Ananta Shesha after performing penance for thousands of years. Lord Vishnu pleased with his penance gave to him the basic knowledge of the Veda. Only after getting that knowledge, he commenced his creation.

The Four Kumaras, Creation of Lord Brahma When the four Kumaras came into existence, they were all embodiments of pure qualities. They did not have any sign of negative qualities like laziness, sleep etc. Brahma had created these four Kumaras so that they could help in the process of creation. But they refused when they were ordered by Brahma to do so. So these four Kumaras—kumara means unmarried brahmacaris. Because in the beginning Brahma begot so many sons, and each of them were asked to increase the population.

Sanaka, Sanandana, Sanatana, they were also requested by their father to increase population, but they refused. They said, “No, we are not going to be entangled in these material affairs. We shall remain kumaras, brahmacharis, and preach the glories of Godhead,” by which Brahma became angry. And while he was angry, from his anger Rudra, Siva, was produced frm his forehead.

Actually these four Kumaras are eternaly liberated souls. All of them are pious and virtuous right from their birth and engaged themselves in activities like chanting the name of the Lord, listening about the lords divine activities, pastimes etc. Not for a single moment in their minds, came the desires for worldly matters. They chant ‘Hari nama’ all the time. They never utter anything mundane. The constant chanting of this mantra has its effect. They never face any danger to their lives and always remaine like a child of five years. Neither do they have mudane desires nor do they suffer from defects.

These four Kumaras, as siddhesvaras, had achieved all the yogic perfectional achievements ( siddhis ), and as such they travel in outer space without machines.

Prithu and sage Narada were fortunate to receive knowledge from these Kumaras.

General Lessons from the Kumars
KUMARA SANAKA: There is no greater pilgrimage like the river the Ganges, no greater teacher like one’s own mother, no deity like Lord Vishnu and the Guru is the greatest of all. There is no other brother like peace, no other penance like truth, no other gain better than salvation of the soul and there is no river like the Ganges. Charity, enjoyment and destruction are the only three movements of wealth. The wealth which is neither used in doing charities nor is cherished gets destroyed. Plants too have lives and nourish and protect the human society with its fruits, roots and branches. If a man does not chant the holy , then he is like a dead person.

KUMARA SANANDANA: Bhagavan (Krishna) means, one who is full of all the splendours, all the virtuousness and religiousness, all the fame, all the knowledge, all the wealth and fortune and also possesses all the apathy and who also knows the cause of the creation and destruction. One who has the knowledge of all these 6 things is entitled to be called learned.

KUMARA SANATANA: One must follow the rules as it has been described in the sacred texts on Dashami (Tenth Day), Ekadashi(Eleventh Day) and Dwadashi (Twelfth day). One should avoid the followings ten things on Dashami day- pots and vessels made of bronze, eating grains, honey, spinach, pumpkin, lentils and food given by others, having food for the second time in a day and making sexual contacts with wife. On Ekadashi, the following should be avoided- gambling, sleeping, chewing beetle leaves, brushing of teeth, violence, copulating and untruthfulness. On Dwadashi, the following should be avoided- items made of bronze, wine, honey, oil, untruthfulness, doing exercise, going abroad, having food twice during the day, copulating and touching those things which are not worth touching and eating lentils.

KUMARA SANATKUMARA: One who has is self-realized neither sees the death of the body, diseases nor the sorrows because he understands that the real self is the soul (Atma). When the diet is pure then the inner self becomes pure and when the inner self becomes pure then he acquires remembrance of his past lives (Smriti) and he attains eternal knowledge about the permanence of the soul and the ephemeral nature of the physical body. Fools and ignorant people are fearful of thousands of things but the learned man who has attained self-realization is not affected by the fear. Death and fear have been conquered. The material environment becomes friendly and serves the devotee with folded hands.

Four Kumaras-The Eternal Youths of Hindu Mythology
In Hindu mythology, the Four Kumaras are four eternal youths who are regarded as the first teachers of Sanatana Dharma (the eternal law). They are the sons of Lord Brahma, the creator of the universe, and are also considered as the avatars of Lord Vishnu (10 Avatars of Lord Vishnu or the Complete List of 24 Avatars of Lord Vishnu). In this essay, we will explore the significance of the Four Kumaras as Vishnu’s avatars and their teachings of Jnana (knowledge), Bhakti (devotion), Yoga (meditation), and Vairagya (detachment).

The Four Kumaras in Hindu Texts
The Four Kumaras are known for their extraordinary knowledge, spiritual wisdom, and profound insights into the nature of reality. They are mentioned in various Hindu texts, including the Bhagavata Purana, Skanda Purana, and Mahabharata.

Who are the Four Kumaras?
The Four Kumaras are named Sanaka, Sanandana, Sanatana, and Sanatkumara. They are also known as the Chatur Sanatana or the Four Eternal Youths. According to Hindu mythology, Lord Brahma created the Four Kumaras from his mind without any physical union with a consort. As a result, the Four Kumaras are also known as Manasputras or sons born out of the mind.

The Four Kumaras are depicted as eternally young, naked, and free from all material desires. They have no interest in worldly pleasures or possessions and are completely devoted to the pursuit of spiritual knowledge. The Four Kumaras are also regarded as the avatars of Lord Vishnu. According to Hindu mythology, Lord Vishnu incarnated as the Four Kumaras to propagate the teachings of Sanatana Dharma and help humanity attain spiritual liberation.

Teachings of the Four Kumaras
The Four Kumaras are known for their teachings on Jnana, Bhakti, Yoga, and Vairagya. They are considered to be the first teachers of Sanatana Dharma, which encompasses all aspects of Hindu philosophy and spiritual practices.

Jnana refers to spiritual knowledge or wisdom that leads to the realization of the true nature of the self and the universe. The Four Kumaras are regarded as the embodiment of Jnana, and their teachings emphasize the importance of self-knowledge and understanding the true nature of reality. They teach that the ultimate goal of human life is to realize the self as pure consciousness, which is beyond the limitations of the body and mind.

Bhakti refers to devotion or love for a divine being. The Four Kumaras are known for their devotion to Lord Vishnu, whom they worship as the ultimate reality. Their teachings emphasize the importance of developing a loving relationship with the divine and surrendering oneself completely to the will of God.

Yoga refers to spiritual practices that lead to the union of the individual self with the universal self. The Four Kumaras are regarded as masters of yoga, and their teachings emphasize the importance of meditation, self-discipline, and self-control in achieving spiritual liberation. They teach that the mind must be trained to focus on the divine and free itself from the distractions of the material world.

Vairagya refers to detachment or renunciation of material desires. The Four Kumaras are known for their detachment from all material possessions and desires. Their teachings emphasize the importance of living a simple and austere life, free from the distractions of material wealth and possessions.

Relevance of the Four Kumaras in Modern Times
The teachings of the Four Kumaras hold significant relevance in modern times. In a world that is increasingly focused on material gains and consumerism, their teachings on detachment and inner growth offer valuable guidance. Their emphasis on knowledge and pursuit of truth is crucial in a world of misinformation, while their example of devotion inspires individuals to seek deeper connections with the divine.

Kumara Avatara
(Srimad Bhagavatam – Skanda 01 – 3.6, Skanda 02 – 7.5, Skanda 03 – 12.2 to 12.5, Skanda 03 – 15.x to 16.x)

Kumara Avatara• Meditation: I meditate on Kumara Avatara of Lord Vishnu.

• Events:

1. Kumaras undergoing austerities: In the beginning of creation were the four Kumaras who underwent severe austerities, being established in unbroken brahmacharya. (Srimad Bhagavatam – Skanda 01 – 3.6)

2. Kumaras incarnating: Desiring to create the different Lokas, Lord Brahma performed tapas (penance). Four Sanas (i.e. Sanaka, Sananda, Sanatana and Sanatkumara) appeared. (Srimad Bhagavatam – Skanda 02 – 7.5)

3. Kumaras reviving the Truth: They revived the Truth of the Aatman which was destroyed in the previous creation. (Srimad Bhagavatam – Skanda 02 – 7.5)

4. Kumaras incarnating: In the beginning, Lord Brahma created Moha (Illusion), Tama (Darkness), Agyana (Ignorance) etc. He was not satisfied with that sinful creation. Then he purified himself by meditating on Bhagavan and started another creation. Sanaka, Sananda, Sanatana and Sanatkumara appeared who were munis (sages) free from the effects of Karma (Nishkriya) and whose creative energy flowed upwards (Urdhwa-Retas). Lord Brahma told them to create progeny, but they did not desire that being devoted to the principles of Moksha-Dharma by meditating on Vasudeva. (Srimad Bhagavatam – Skanda 03 – 12.2 to 12.5)

5. Kumaras & Jaya-Vijaya: Once the Kumaras visited Vaikuntha by the power of their Yoga. They crossed the six entrances of Vaikuntha and saw two doorkeepers (Jaya-Vijaya) at the seventh gate. When the Kumaras were about to enter the seventh gate, the doorkeepers blocked their way with their staffs. The Kumaras became angry due to their eagerness to see the Lord. The Kumaras said that the behaviour of the doorkeepers were quite unbecoming since they saw enemies in Vaikuntha where everything is in harmony. The Kumaras therefore cursed them to be born on Earth. (Srimad Bhagavatam – Skanda 03 – 15.26 to 15.34)

6. Kumaras & Lord Vishnu: After the Kumaras had cursed Jaya and Vijaya, the Lord himself came out with Sri Devi and gave darshan to the Kumaras. The fragrance of the Tulasi leaves from the feet of the Lord made the body and mind of the Kumaras agitated (with spiritual joy). Seeing the form of the Lord, their hearts were full and they meditated on the Lord again and again. (Srimad Bhagavatam – Skanda 03 – 15.37 to 15.44)

The Supreme Lord asked for forgiveness from the Kumaras, because the doorkeepers who are his servants have committed offence against the brahmanas. The Lord said that brahmanas are very dear to him and this offence by his servants are like offence committed by him. The Lord however asked the Kumaras that after reaping the fruits of their actions, the doorkeepers may return to his abode. The Kumaras glorified the Lord and in turn expressed their repentance for cursing the doorkeepers. The Lord said that it was ordained by him and they will be born in the family of demons but will be united with him through thoughts of anger (i.e. as enemies). The Kumaras circumambulated the Lord and returned to their abodes with their minds satiated. (Srimad Bhagavatam – Skanda 03 – 16.1 to 16.28)

7. Devi Lakshmi & Jaya-Vijaya: The Lord said to Jaya and Vijaya that the curse on them were destined by Devi Lakshmi before when she was also prevented from entering Vaikuntha by them (in an earlier occasion). (Srimad Bhagavatam – Skanda 03 – 16.30)

8. Jaya-Vijaya & Diti: Brahma said to the devas that after falling from the Vaikuntha, Jaya and Vijaya entered the womb of Diti which was fathered by sage Kashyapa. (Srimad Bhagavatam – Skanda 03 – 16.35)

9. Jaya-Vijaya & sage Kashyapa: Brahma said to the devas that after falling from the Vaikuntha, Jaya and Vijaya entered the womb of Diti which was fathered by sage Kashyapa. (Srimad Bhagavatam – Skanda 03 – 16.35)

Meditation on Earth and Life:
Greatness of Cow
The Vedas with their six limbs, pada and krama resides in the mouth of the Cow.

Hari and Kesava resides on the horns.

Skanda resides on the belly.

Brahma resides on the head.

Shankara resides on the forehead.

Indra resides on the tip of the horn of the Cow.

The Aswins reside in the ears.

Sun and the Moon reside in the eyes.

Garuda resides in the teeth.

Saraswati resides in the tongue of the Cow.

All the sacred places remain in the anus.

Ganges resides in the urine.

The sages reside in the pores of the skin.

Yama resides on the backside of the face of the Cow.

Kubera and Varuna reside on the right side.

Yakshas reside on the left side.

Gandharvas reside on the center.

The celestial nymphs resides on the hind parts of the hoofs of the Cow.

The all-auspicious Lakshmi resides in the cow-dung and cow-urine.

Those who move in the sky resides on the tip of the feet.

Prajapati lives in the bellowing sound.

The full four oceans reside in the udder of the Cow.
(Padma Purana – Srishti Khanda 48.156 – 48.166)


Sanat Kumara is a group of four eternal sages who are said to have been born directly from the mind of Lord Brahma. It includes Sanaka Kumara,  Sanandana Kumara, Sanatana Kumara, and Sanat Kumara.  They are believed to be the mind-born sons of the creator god Brahma.
The immense significance of Four Sanakadika Rishis/ Sanat Kumaras Homam
According to the Vedic realm, the Four Kumaras were born from the mind of Brahma, who created them to assist in the creation process. They are said to have been born as young boys, and due to their extraordinary wisdom and purity, they were regarded as the most knowledgeable sages in the universe.
Sanaka Kumara, Sanandana Kumara, Sanatana Kumara, and Sanat Kumara are often depicted as eternally youthful, each representing a specific aspect of the divine. Sanaka Kumara is associated with spiritual knowledge and enlightenment, Sanandana Kumara is associated with devotion and love, Sanatana Kumara is associated with cosmic law and order, and Sanat Kumara is associated with the supreme self or Atman.
The Four Kumaras are also considered the original teachers of the Bhakti movement, which is focused on devotion and love for the divine. They are said to have imparted this knowledge to the great sage Narada, who spread it throughout the universe.
In some traditions, the Four Kumaras are also believed to have played a role in the creation of the universe, serving as divine architects and builders. The  Four Kumaras are legendary sages associated with wisdom, purity, devotion, and cosmic order. They are regarded as eternal youths and are believed to have played a significant role in the creation of the universe and the spread of the Bhakti movement. They are considered the foremost among the great sages and are known for their self-control, wisdom, and devotion. Performing a homam in their honor is believed to bring peace, prosperity, and spiritual elevation
The Four Sanakadika Rishis are also a group of four rishis who are believed to be the first teachers of humanity. They were instrumental in the evolution of human consciousness and were responsible for imparting knowledge regarding various aspects of spirituality, philosophy, and science to humans.
The Four Sanakadika Rishis are also known as the Sanat Kumaras. They performed their duties as teachers at Shukra Dweepa (the Island of Mercury). The importance of these rishis lies in the fact that they were responsible for imparting knowledge about rituals and sacrifices to people. They also taught people how to perform homam for different purposes ranging from spiritual growth to material prosperity.
Thus, doing homam with proper rituals is considered very important by devotees because it helps them achieve their goals much faster than doing it without proper rituals or without knowing the significance behind each step involved in performing homam
Significance of Four Sanakadika Rishis/ Sanat Kumaras Homam
The Four Sanakadika Rishis/ Sanat Kumaras Homam is a Vedic ritual to purify the atmosphere and remove negative energy from a place. It is believed to effectively remove all negative energy from a place, which can hurt people’s lives. The Rishi or Rishis are the ancient sages who wrote down the Vedas, the sacred scriptures of Hinduism. These Rishis were considered enlightened beings and revered by devotees as God’s messengers. The Rishis are considered divine beings and are worshipped during this homam.
Boons of Four Sanakadika Rishis/ Sanat Kumaras Homam
One of the essential benefits of Four Sanakadika Rishis/ Sanat Kumaras Homam is that it is very powerful. It helps eliminate all the problems and gives you a new life. Another boon of this homam is that it removes all the obstacles coming your way and makes your life peaceful and prosperous. It helps in getting rid of all diseases, misfortunes, poverty, depression, and other issues related to health and wealth. This Homam also helps attain success in jobs, business, education, and relationships. A notable benefit of this homam is that it gives us long life with good health and prosperity. We can get rid of all our enemies who are trying to disturb us by performing this homam regularly. We can also eliminate black magic spells cast on us by performing this homam regularly
Story of downfall and liberation of Jay and Vijay (gatekeepers of Vaikuntha)
At the beginning of the process of creation, Lord Brahma created the ‘Four Kumaras’ or the ‘Chatursana’. As the Four Kumaras were born from the mind by just a desire (manas) of Brahma they are referred to as his Manasaputras. Their names are : Sanaka, Sanandana, Sanatana and Sanat Kumara.
When the four Kumaras came into existence, they were all embodiments of pure qualities. They did not have any sign of negative qualities like proud, anger, attachment, lust, material desires (Kaam, Krodh, Lobh, Moh, Ahankaar etc). Now Lord Brahma had created these four Kumaras so that they could help in the process of creation. However, the Kumaras refused his order to procreate and instead devoted themselves to God and celibacy (brahmacarya). They requested their father for the boon of remaining perpetually five years old.
Due to the boon from their father Brahma and the strength of their tapa, the Four Kumaras looked like 5 year old. Jaya and Vijaya, the gate keepers of the Vaikuntha stopped the Kumaras at the gate, thinking them to be children. They told the Kumaras that Shri Vishnu is resting and that they cannot see them now. Sanat Kumars replied Lord love His devotees and are always available to for His devotees. You are no one to stop us from seeing our dear Lord. But Jay Vijay didn’t understood their point and kept on arguing for long time. Though Sanat Kumars are very pure and have no trigunas of Maya in them (Sato, Rajo, Tamo) but by the plan of Lord to teach His gate keepers a lesson, He circulated anger in pure hearts of Sanat Kumars.  The enraged Kumaras cursed both the Dwara Palas, the gate keepers Jaya and Vijaya, that they would have to give up their divinity and born as mortals on Earth and live there.
When Jaya and Vijaya were cursed by the Sanat Kumaras at the gateway of Vaikunthaloka, Shri Vishnu appeared before them and the gatekeepers requested Shri Vishnu to lift the curse of the Kumaras. Shri Vishnu says that curse of Kumaras cannot be reverted. Instead, He gives Jaya and Vijaya two options. The first option is to take seven births on Earth as a devotee of Vishnu, while the second is to take three births as His enemy. After serving either of these sentences, they can re-attain their stature at Vaikuntha and be with Him permanently. Jaya and Vijaya cannot bear the thought of staying away from Vishnu for seven lives, they agree to the second option to become enemies.
In the first birth as enemy to Shri Vishnu, Jaya and Vijaya were born as Hiraneyaksha and Hiraneyakashyipu in Satya Yuga. Hiranyaksha was an asura, the son of Diti and Kashyapa rishi. He was slain by the Lord Vishnu after he (Hiranyaksha) took the Earth to the bottom of what has been described as the “Cosmic Ocean”. Lord Vishnu assumed the Avatar of a boar – Varaha and dove into the ocean to lift the Earth, in the process slaying Hiranyaksha who was obstructing Him. The battle lasted one thousand years. He had an elder brother named Hiranyakashipu, who after having undertaken penances which made him incredibly powerful and invincible unless several conditions were met, was later slain by Lord Narasimha, another incarnation of Shri Vishnu.
In the next Treta yuga – Jaya and Vijaya were born as Ravana and Kumbhakarna, and were killed by Lord Vishnu in His forms as Ramachandra and Lakshmana.
At the end of the Dwapara Yuga – Jaya and Vijaya were born their third birth as Shishupala and Dantavakra (an ally of Jarasandha, a friend of Shishupala and an enemy of Vasudeva Krishna) and Lord Krishna appreared Himself along with Balarama and killed them. Therefore, two attendants of the Lord in Vaikuntha named Jaya and Vijaya became Hirakyakasipu and Hiranyakka in Satya-yuga, Ravana and Kumbhakarna in the Treta-yuga, and as Shishupala and Dantavakra at the end of Dvapara-yuga. Because of their fruitive acts, Jaya and Vijaya agreed to become the Lord’s enemies, and when killed in that mentality, they attained salvation in oneness.
In this way Jaya and Vijaya attained liberation after three births.
Lord Brahma
Brahma, the god of creation, is one of the thrimurthis (holy trinity); Lord Vishnu (the god of protection or sustenance) and Lord Shiva (the god of destruction or annihilation) form part of this trinity of gods. Brahma is known as Chaturanana or Chaturmukha (four-faced); they represent variously the four Vedas (Rig, Yajur, Sama and Atharva); the four yugas (epochs of time) viz. sathya (or krita), tretha, dwapara and kali; the four varnas (caste system as per Hindu system; four of them viz. brahmana or brahmin, kshatriya, vaishya, shudra) brahmana or brahmin, kshatriya, vaishya and shudra) also the four cardinal directions.
Understandably there is lot of skepticism surrounding Brahma’s “birth” and his “first” creation(s), since he is alluded as the god of creation.
Brahma is believed to have been born of the brahmn, the Supreme Being and the feminine energy referred to as Maya, with the desire to create the universe and beings. Alternate version states that Brahma is born out of Hiranyagarbha (cosmic golden egg). As per another legend, Brahma emerged out of a lotus flower that grew from the navel of Vishnu, so as to assist him produce the universe.
As far as his creation goes, Brahma is believed to have started by creating the immovable objects like planets, land and mountains. Brahma then made different kinds of vegetation, bird and animal species. Brahma then created human forms viz. the four Kumaras viz. Sanaka, Sanandana, Sanatana and Sanath Kumara and commanded them to help him in the creation. However, the four Kumaras chose to lead a spiritual life, leaving Brahma frustrated!
As a result, anger was generated in the mind of Brahma; out of his anger came out Ardhanarishwara, (an androgynous form i.e. half of the body was male and the other half female) of Rudra and Rudrani on the right and left side respectively. Ardhanariswhara then split up into Rudra and Rudrani; they decided to do penance.
However, when he begged Rudra and Rudrani to help him in the procreation of humans, they finally agreed. Rudra created ten more fierce men just like himself; the 11 of them are collectively called Rudras. Rudrani then created ten more women called Rudranis. Each of the 11 Rudras married a Rudrani. The original Rudra became known as Shiva.
Since the Rudras were fierce and were destructive in nature, Brahma realized that they would not serve his purpose……he wanted different kinds of people for propagation. He therefore created 10 manasa putras (sons born out of mind; created through the will power) viz. Angirasa, Atri, Bhrighu, Daksha (as per some versions it is Atharvan aka Prachetasa), Marichi, Narada, Pulaha, Pulastya, Kratu, and Vasishtha. As per some versions, he also created Dharma and Kardama.
It is further said that Brahma divided himself into male and female — Swayambhuva Manu and Shatarupa respectively — to multiply the species of man; they had two sons Priyavrata and Uttanapada and three daughters Akuti, Devahuti and Prasuti.
After that, a beautiful woman was born from Brahma’s mind called Saraswati. She was so beautiful and perfect that she could captivate the minds of even the sages. On seeing her, Brahma himself and his ten mind-born sons, were infatuated with her. Lord Shiva, the destroyer, who was watching all this was greatly angered; he felt that as Brahma had created her she was like his daughter and it was his duty to protect her; hence he struck off Brahma’s fifth head.
Brahma requested his manasa putras to go forth and start the human race. Of these, Narada refused to do so and for this Brahma cursed him saying that he would not be able to stay in one place for long, and would keep roaming the three worlds. Among others, while Daksha married Prasuti resulting in the birth of many daughters, Angirasa, Atri, Bhrighu, Marichi, Narada, Pulaha, Pulastya, Kratu, Vasishtha and Dharma married the daughters of Daksha, as mentioned in the story of Daksha. Kardama was married to Devahuti. Since they are believed to be the fathers of the human race they are known as Prajapathis (grand progenitor of humans), and more specifically to Daksha.
Brahma is also credited with creation of the 4 Vedas, music, Sanskrit language, units of measurement and time.
Brahma and Saraswati
As per one version, when the cosmos did not exist, Lord Brahma was all alone. Since he longed for company, he decided to split himself into two parts, creating a feminine counterpart, variously named as Brahmi or Saraswati. Brahma was attracted to her; Saraswati started moving all over the place to avoid him. He then created total of five heads for himself so as to gaze her wherever she was. He finally requested her to help him to create the universe and thus was created Manu, the first being. Saraswati is considered as the creator and hence the mother of Sanskrit language, as well as the Vedas.
Brahma’s teaching to his creatures
Long time ago, Brahma’s creations viz. devas, men, and asuras, went to him as students. First, the devas spoke to Brahma and requested him to teach them. In response, Brahma uttered just one syllable, “da”. Then he enquired, as to whether devas have understood the teaching. They said that they have understood that “da” means damya, i.e. means to be self-controlled. Brahma was pleased that they have understood his teaching.
It was then the turn of the men to speak. They requested Brahma to teach them. He uttered the same syllable, “da” and asked the men whether they have understood the teaching. The men replied in the affirmative and explained that the teaching is datta …. to donate or give i.e. to be charitable. Brahma was pleased that the men have understood it rightly.
Finally asuras made a similar request to Brahma. Thereupon he uttered the very same syllable, “da” and enquired whether they have understood the teaching. The asuras replied that they have understood the teaching is daya, which means to be compassionate. Brahma nodded his assent and said that indeed they have correctly understood the teaching.
It is said that each time we hear the thunder in the sky resembling the sound “da da da”, it is as if to remind us of Brahma’s teaching of the three principles.
Why Brahma is not worshipped
Brahma once went to Vaikuntha to meet Lord Vishnu. It is said that Vishnu who reclines on the serpent Anantha did not rise up to receive him. Perceiving this as a slight to him, Brahma reprimanded Vishnu for lying down like a haughty person and not honoring his guest. Vishnu responded that he is the sustainer of this whole universe to which Brahma retorted that he is the creator. They started arguing with each other; each of them claiming superiority over the other. As their arguments heated up, their respective vehicles — the swan and Garuda — started fighting each other. Not wanting to be left behind, their attendants too joined in the clash.
Devas who were aghast at this ugly turn of events, approached Lord Shiva. They reached Kailasha and requested Shiva to intervene. Shiva agreed and reached the spot. On seeing this horrendous event, Lord transformed himself into a long huge column of fire. All present were baffled….. Brahma and Vishnu ceased their battle forthwith and and wondered — who or what is this effulgent and wonderful form? Unable to decipher, they decided to find out. Thus the two gods, proud of their ability, set out in the opposite directions — while Brahma went skywards taking the form of a swan, Vishnu went towards the netherworld in the form of a boar. Before commencing on their quest, they mutually agreed that the first one to return back after reaching the end point will be acknowledged as the superior among themselves.
Vishnu penetrated through the netherworlds and went very far below, but could not see the root or base of the fiery column. Exhausted, he returned to the site. Meanwhile, Brahma soared higher and higher… but could not see the summit of the column. As he was soaring higher, he saw a ketaki flower falling from above. He caught the flower as it was falling down and asked as to where it has come from. The flower said that a wind had accidentally caused it to fall from the top of the column. He thought of a subterfuge; he can use the flower as witness of him having reached the top. He successfully convinced the flower to testify to his false assertion.
On reaching ground zero, he saw Vishnu waiting dejectedly. Brahma proclaimed his victory to Vishnu, having seen the top of the column. Vishnu asked for a proof or a witness. Brahma then asked the flower to corroborate his statement. The flower, with some reluctance gave the false evidence… At that moment, the column of fire vanished and Shiva himself appeared.
Extremely angry at Brahma for lying and the flower for endorsing a false statement, he cursed both of them. He cursed that henceforth, ketaki flowers will never be used in his worship. As for Brahma, he cursed that Brahma would no more be worshipped as god. As per some version, Shiva cut off the head that spoke the lie; thus Brahma is now seen with only four heads, instead of five.
How long is a day of Lord Brahma?
One day of Brahma is equal to 1,000 chatur yugas (four yugas). Since one chatur yuga is 4,320,000 years i.e. 4.32 million years, one day of Brahma is 4.32 billion years and so is the duration of one night of Brahma.
The break-up of a chatur yuga into the length of the four different yugas is as follows:
· Sathya or Krita yuga — 1,728,000 years;
· Tretha yuga — 1,296,000 years;
· Dwapara yuga — 864,000 years; and
· Kali yuga — 432,000 years
It is believed that the universe exists for one day of Brahma, called the Brahma kalpa; at the end of it the whole universe gets dissolved in a process called pralaya (cosmic dissolution).
One month of Brahma works out to 60,000 chatur yugas (2 * 1000 * 30) and one year of Brahma is 720,000 chatur yugas (60,000 * 12). The life span of Brahma is considered to be 100 Brahma years.
Instead of trying to grapple with these mind boggling numbers, it is essential that we understand the ephemeral nature of our existence and stay in this earth!
Hindu mythology gives a vivid description of brahma astra (Lord Brahma’s supernatural destructive weapon, which is capable of causing widespread destruction) and its variants viz. brahmashira astra and the brahmanda astra. Brahma astra is a fiery and strong weapon; if aimed at a person, it never misses its mark. It can create a fierce fireball when discharged causing the nature is set aflame. Since the target faces sure annihilation this was used by a righteous person, on an enemy army or individual, with the specific intent to uphold the dharma. The brahmashira astra is believed to cause so much destruction that not a blade of grass will grow in the area for a very long time.
As already mentioned, Brahma is representing as one having four faces one facing each of the cardinal directions; all of them have beards with eyes closed in meditation. The arms hold up different objects like akshamala (rosary), kusha grass, ladle, spoon, kamandala and book; their combination and arrangement vary with the image. Notably he does not carry any weapon.
He is represented in standing posture on a lotus or in sitting posture on a hamsa (swan), which stands for knowledge and discrimination, since swans have the ability to separate water from milk.
Interesting Trivia:
1. In India, Brahma is being worshipped in very few places. Of the 6 temples, the most famous temple is in Pushkar (Rajasthan) while the other temples can be found in Barmer (Rajasthan), Tirupattur and Kumbakonam (Tamil Nadu), Kullu Valley (Himachal Pradesh) and Panaji (Goa)
There are four kinds of pralaya viz. naimittika (occasional), prakrtika (elemental), atyantika (absolute) and nitya (perpetual). The naimittika pralaya happens at the end of kalpa when Brahma goes to sleep at the end of his day. The prakrtika pralaya happens when the entire creation dissolves and returns to their original cause in a process which happens in the reverse order of creation. The atyantika pralaya happens when an individual attains moksha. The nitya pralaya is the constant disappearance of all living beings