ॐ Hindu Of Universe

“God’s light is within you, It never leaves you.”

Meditation is a tradition that originated in ancient India as an Ayurvedic practice.

Currently, meditation has gained wider acceptance across the globe due to its benefits.

In general, meditation is a wellness practice that aids in reducing stress and anxiety.

It also plays a significant role in providing us with calmness and relaxation.

 It contributes both to our mental as well as our physical health simultaneously.

There are different types of meditation practiced by people based on their requirements, time, and ability to focus or concentrate.

There are chiefly two ways of practicing meditation.

They include guided and unguided meditation practices.

For guided meditation practice, you can rely upon a guru, a trainer, or make use of a meditation application, which you can download in your smart gadgets.

When you decide to engage in meditation, it is essential to understand that the cornerstone of practicing meditation is to remain disciplined, and you have to be yourself.

Wellness, attention, and compassion are the other chief elements to be considered while practicing meditation.

Here, we will be discussing the different types of meditation, how to perform meditation, and its benefits.

Read on to find out more about these topics!

Types of Meditation: The ancient concept of meditation has evolved with time.

In the Indian tradition, the different forms of meditation are Yoga meditation, Chakra meditation, Vipassana meditation, and transcendental meditation.

Now, there are many types of meditational practices, which have grown from various traditions in India and other Eastern countries.

Some of the significant types of meditation include-

Mindful meditation– It is an act of remaining aware of the activity you are doing in the present.

Whether you are cooking or sitting under the shade of a tree, you have to bring awareness to the activities you are performing.

Some of the things to consider while practicing mindful meditation are-

  1. You can keep your eyes closed.

You can even keep them open to create a sense of attachment with the task you are doing.

2. It is essential to appreciate your breathing.

3. You can remain in a comfortable position.

The cross-legged seated position is highly beneficial in practicing meditation.

4. Thoughts would interrupt you.

But, do not be carried away by them.

5. You have to redirect your thoughts and focus on your breathing.

Regular practice of mindful meditation can improve your concentration.

It can also assist in regulating your emotions.

Try to find at least five to ten minutes a day to practice mindful meditation.

Loving Kindness Meditation – It is also known as Metta meditation.

It is a practice that helps in enhancing our kindness towards others.

You can include the silent repetition of mantras to gain focus.

 You can practice Loving Kindness Meditation to satisfy your relationship.

You can practice it by following these simple steps.

They are-

1. Sit comfortably with your eyes closed.

2. Try to bring awareness to your inner self.

3. Focus on your breathing.

4. Think of a person closely connected to you standing by your right side.

You have to feel love.

5. You have to do the same on all four sides.

6. You can recite the mantra “May I be happy, may I be healthy, may I be safe.”

for your wellness.

7. You can chant the same for the people in your thoughts as well.

“May you be happy, may you be healthy, may you be safe.”

8. After the complication of the practice, you can open your eyes.

The practice of Loving Kindness Meditation can help in resolving conflicts.

It can also aid in understanding the importance of conviction and kindness.

Body Scan Meditation – It is a way of consciously relaxing the different parts of your body.

You can start by focusing on your head or your feet.

You can then continue it with other body parts.

It is better to practice body scan meditation when you find it difficult to focus on your breathing.

It is also helpful in relaxing tight shoulders and neck.

It can also aid those who are suffering from chronic pain.

Body scan meditation can assist you in focusing on self-care as well.

Walking Meditation – If you find it hard to sit in a place and focus on your breathing, you can always opt for walking meditation.

 It aids in improving the mind-body connection.

You can take a walk in the park or any other calm place.

Try to avoid using mobile phones or other gadgets while you are practicing walking meditation.

Yoga Meditation – Yoga is a practice that gives emphasis to meditation.

Shavasana is a resting pose with our eyes closed in Yoga.

It helps in calming our mind and body.

 It can reduce fatigue as well as improve our ability to focus.

It can also boost our energy and confidence.

The regular practice of yoga meditation is beneficial for the health of both our mind and body.

Mantra Meditation – It is a practice in which we have to focus on the vibrations of the mantra we are chanting.

It aids in providing positive energy.

Visualization – Here, you have to imagine someone or something.

Instead of focusing on your breathing, you have to concentrate on the image.

You have to observe your mind and also focus on the physical sensation gained from it.

Chakra Meditation – It is an effective way of healing Chakra imbalances in your body. You can accompany aromatherapy and the application of essential oils in this healing process.

Transcendental Meditation – It is a practice in which you are attempting to move beyond the material realm.

Here, you can chant mantras like “Om” to enhance your focus.

How to practice meditation?

 Different types of meditation practices have different ways of performing it.

In a general sense, here are some of the steps you have to include while meditating. They are-

1. Try to sit in a comfortable place without any interference.

2. Be relaxed and don’t stress yourself.

If you are comfortable sitting on a chair, you can practice meditation there.

3. Try to breathe gently.

4. Try to focus on your inhalations and exhalations.

5. There is nothing wrong with letting your mind wander.

But always try to redirect your thoughts.

Meditate for two to twenty minutes, depending on the time you have.

Beginners can meditate for a maximum of ten minutes.

Always keep in mind, it is not the amount of time you spend on meditation that matters.

It is the quality and consistency that matters.

Benefits of meditation: Meditation has a plethora of benefits.

It can aid you in improving your physical, emotional, and psychological health as well.

 Some of the benefits include-

1. Reduces stress, anxiety, and tension.

2. Decrease the chances of facing depression.

3. Improves our concentration and focus.

4. It aids in controlling pain and grief.

5. It helps to fight addiction.

6. It assists in bringing emotional stability.

7. It can improve your self-esteem, confidence, and awareness.

These are some of the many benefits of incorporating meditation into your life.

Meditation, thus, is a mindful practice, which aids in your overall wellbeing.

In this busy world, meditation can help you remain confident, calm, and composed.

All About Meditation

The growth of the lotus flower is perhaps the best metaphor for the soul as it unfolds in consciousness. It begins in the mud, like a soul caught up in the instinctive nature; then it emerges into the water as a stem, like the soul immersed in the intellect and emotions; and ultimately it appears above the water as a bud, just as the soul awakens to its spiritual nature. For the soul, this stage of the bud beginning to open as a beautiful flower marks the onset of inner striving, seeking to know oneself and fathom the mysteries of life through the introspective process of meditation. Meditation is an art, a definite art, and well worth working for to become accomplished. It is not easy, and yet it is not difficult. It only takes persistence, working day after day to learn to control and train the outer as well as the subtle, inner forces.

Meditation is a long journey, a pilgrimage into the mind itself. Generally we become aware that there is such a thing as meditation after the material world has lost its attraction to us and previous desires no longer bind us to patterns of fear, greed, attachment and ramification. We then seek through philosophy and religion to answer the questions, “Who am I? Where did I come from? Where am I going?” We ask others. We read books. We ponder and wonder. We pray. We even doubt for a while that there is a Truth to be realized, or that we, with all our seeming imperfection, can realize it if it does exist. Oddly enough, this is the beginning of the meditator’s journey on the path, for we must empty ourselves fully before the pure, superconscious energies can flow freely through us. Once this state of emptiness and genuine searching is reached, we soon recognize the futile attempt to find Truth on the outside. We vividly begin to know, from the depth of ourselves, a knowing we could not explain or justify. We simply know that Reality, or the Self God, resides within, and we must go within ourselves to realize it. Of itself, that knowing is not enough. Even great efforts to meditate and vast storehouses of spiritual knowledge are not enough. Many have tried to find the Truth this way. The Truth is deeper and is discovered by the resolute devotee who dedicates his life to the search; who lives a balanced life according to the yamas and niyamas, the Vedic spiritual laws; who willingly undergoes change; who finds and obeys a spiritual teacher, or satguru; and who learns precisely the disciplined art of meditation. This, then, outlines the destination of the meditator’s journey and his means of travel.

One of the first steps is to convince the subconscious mind that meditation is good for us. We may want to meditate consciously, yet maintain fears or doubts about meditation. Somewhere along the way, a long series of events occurred and, upon reaction to them, awareness became externalized. We became geared to the materialistic concepts of the external world. As we begin to feel that urgency to get back within, the old patterns of thought and emotion, cause and effect, naturally repeat themselves. For a while, the contents of the subconscious may conflict with our concepts of what it is like to fully live spiritually. Our habits will be undisciplined, our willpower ineffective. Quite often the subconscious seems almost like another person, because it is always doing something unanticipated.

In these early stages, we must mold the areas that are different into a new lifestyle so that there will be nothing in the subconscious that opposes what is in the conscious or superconscious mind. Only when all three of these areas of consciousness act in harmony can meditation be truly attained and sustained. For us to be afraid of the subconscious is unwise, for it then holds a dominant position in our life. The subconscious is nothing more than the accumulation of vibratory rates of experience encountered by awareness when it was externalized, a storehouse containing the past.

Remold the Subconscious Mind

The solution to subconscious confusion is to set a goal for ourselves in the external world and to have a positive plan incorporating meditation daily as a lifestyle within that goal. Through this positive initiative and daily effort in meditation, awareness is centered within. We learn how to disentangle and unexternalize awareness.

As soon as strong initiative is taken to change our nature toward refinement, a new inner process begins to take place. The forces of positive accomplishment from each of our past lives begin to manifest in this one. The high points of a past life, when something great has happened, become strung together. These merits or good deeds are vibrations in the ether substance of our memory patterns, because each one of us, right now, is a sum total of all previous experience. All of the distractions of the external area of the mind begin to fade, and positive meditation becomes easily attainable. It is not difficult to move our individual awareness quickly within when distractions occur.

Set Goals & New Patterns

This new pattern of setting goals and meeting them strengthens the will. One such goal is to perform sadhana every day without fail during a morning vigil period of worship, japa, scriptural study and meditation. Daily meditation has to become part of our lifestyle, not just a new something we do or study about. It must become a definite part of us. We have to live to meditate. This is the only way to reach the eventual goal on the path–the realization of the all-pervasive Sivam. Deep meditation takes the power of our spiritual will, which is cultivated through doing everything we do to perfection, through meeting the challenges of our goals, and through its constant expression as we seek to do more than we think we can each day. So, set your spiritual goals according to where you are on the path. Set goals for deeper, more superconscious meditation, for a change of your personality or outer nature, for better service to your fellow man, and for a totally religious lifestyle.

Goals are generally not used in spiritual life, because the inner mechanism of goal setting is not clearly understood. Dynamic, successful people who go into business for themselves have to have a positive, aggressive plan and keep their lives in a good routine to achieve success. The most prominent among them begin and end each day at a certain time in order to sustain the pressure of the business world. We can and should approach the practice of meditation in a similar way. Like the businessman, we want to succeed in our quest, the only difference being the choice of an inner goal as opposed to the choice of an outer goal, the fulfillment of which entangles us and further externalizes awareness.

In the early stages of meditation, it’s very difficult to sit without moving, because that has not been part of our lifestyle. The subconscious mind has never been programmed to contentedly sit quietly. We didn’t see our families doing that. Perhaps we haven’t seen anybody doing that. No example has been set. Therefore, we have to be patient with ourselves and not sit for too long in the beginning. Start by sitting for ten minutes without moving. In a few weeks, extend it to twenty minutes, then a half hour. Thus we avoid being fanatical and allow the subconscious to make its necessary adjustments.

These adjustments are physical as well as emotional and intellectual. The nerve currents rearrange themselves so that prolonged stillness and absence of external activity is comfortable. Similarly, the philosophy of the path of enlightenment fully penetrates every layer of the subconscious, adjusting previous erroneous concepts of ourselves and enabling us to consciously intuit various philosophical areas and know them to be right and true from our personal experience of superconsciousness. This, then, may take a few years.

If we plant a tree, we have to wait for it to grow and mature before we enjoy its shade. So it is in meditation. We make our plans for beginning the practices of meditation, then give ourselves enough time, several years, to fully adjust and remold the subconscious mind. Living as we do in the externalized culture of the West, we are conditioned to be in a hurry to get everything. When we try to internalize awareness too quickly through various intense and sometimes fanatical ways, we reap the reaction. Meditation goes fine for a brief span, but then externalizes again according to the programming of our family and culture.

To permanently alter these patterns, we have to work gently to develop a new lifestyle for the totality of our being–physically, emotionally, intellectually and spiritually. This we do a little at a time. Wisdom tells us that it cannot be done all at once. We have to be patient with ourselves. If we are impatient on the path, failure is in view. We are going to fail, because instant spiritual unfoldment is a fairy-tale concept. It is far better that we recognize that there will be difficult challenges as the subconscious looms up, with all of its conflicts and confusions, heavy and strong. When it does, we must face them calmly, through spiritual journaling, vasana daha tantra. If our eventual goal is clearly in mind and we have a positive step-by-step plan on how to reach that goal, then we won’t get excited when something goes wrong, because we view our mental and emotional storms in their proper and temporary perspective.

Face the Barriers

Not only does the subconscious create barriers in our own minds, it also draws to us the doubts and worries of other people for us to face and resolve. There is such a vast warehouse of negative conditioning against meditation that it is almost useless to begin if we believe any of it at all. We have all heard a few of the fears: “Something terrible must have happened to you as a child if you want to go into that.” “You don’t love me anymore. That’s why you meditate–you’re withdrawing.” “You’re just afraid of society and responsibility. It’s an escape from the real world that you can’t cope with.” “You’re going to be poor if you meditate. Everyone who meditates is broke, you know.” And so it goes, on and on.

We do have to answer these objections for the subconscious and thus settle all doubts within ourselves. Of course, the results of meditation will themselves convince the subconscious of the benefit of inner sadhana as we bring forth perceptive insights, renewed energy, a happy and balanced life and spiritual attainment. Negative conditioning breaks down as we prove to ourselves according to our own experience that it was wrong. Such conditioning is inhibiting to some and has to be corrected. To counteract it, we can ask ourselves, “Why? What is it all about? How did I attract these problems? Do I still have such doubts in my subconscious, consciously unknown?” We can further ask, “Who has done the conditioning? What was their life like? Were they happy people?” Finally, from our own positive efforts to cognize, we actually remold the subconscious, erase false concepts and become free.

The mind in its apparently endless confusion and desires leads us by novelty from one thing to the next. The reaction to this causes the miseries of the world, and the miseries of the world happen inside of people. But occasionally we have to call a halt to the whole thing and get into ourselves. That’s the process of meditation. It’s an art. It’s a faculty we have within ourselves which, when developed, gives a balance and a sense to life. And everyone, whether they know it or not, is searching, trying to find out what life is all about.

So many people tell me, “Oh, I would like to study yoga, but I just don’t have the time,” “I can’t get quiet enough,” or “The kids make too much noise,” or some excuse like that. They don’t realize that you don’t become quiet automatically. Becoming quiet is a systematic process. You become quiet systematically. It might take you two weeks of practice before you can sit down and feel that you’ve made any progress at all, or even feel like sitting down and trying to become quiet. But it’s one of those things you eventually have to do. You get up and cook breakfast because you have to eat. You are hungry. And when you become hungry enough to get quiet within yourself, you will do so automatically. You will want to. And then what happens? You will sit down, and your mind will race. Say, “Mind, stop!” and see how fast you can make your mind stop and become quiet. Say, “Emotions, you are mind-controlled,” and see how quiet you become.

Establish the Right Conditions

We now come to the practical aspects of meditation. In the beginning, it is best to find a suitable room that is dedicated solely to meditation. If you were a carpenter, you would get a shop for that purpose. You have a room for eating, a room for sleeping. Now you need a separate room just for the purpose of meditation. When you find it, wash the walls and ceiling, wash the windows. Prepare a small altar if you like, bringing together the elements of earth, air, fire and water. Establish a time for your meditations and meet those times strictly. There will be days when you just don’t feel like meditating. Good. Those are often the best days, the times when we make strong inner strides. The finest times to meditate are six in the morning, twelve noon, six in the evening, and twelve midnight. All four of these times could be used, or just choose one. The period of meditation should be from ten minutes to one-half hour to begin with.

By sitting up straight, with the spine erect, we transmute the energies of the physical body. Posture is important, especially as meditation deepens and lengthens. With the spine erect and the head balanced at the top of the spine, the life force is quickened and intensified as energies flood freely through the nerve system. In a position such as this, we cannot become worried, fretful, depressed or sleepy during our meditation. But if we slump the shoulders forward, we short-circuit the life energies. In a position such as this, it is easy to become depressed, to have mental arguments with oneself or another, or to experience unhappiness. So, learn to sit dynamically, relaxed and yet poised. The full-lotus position, with the right foot resting on the left thigh and the left foot above, resting on the right thigh, is the most stable posture to assume, hands resting in the lap, right hand on top, with the thumbs touching.

Control Thinking with Your Breathing

The first observation you may have when thus seated for meditation is that thoughts are racing through the mind substance. You may become aware of many, many thoughts. Also the breath may be irregular. Therefore, the next step is to transmute the energies from the intellectual area of the mind through proper breathing, in just the same way that proper attitude, preparation and posture transmuted the physical-instinctive energies. Through regulation of the breath, thoughts are stilled and awareness moves into an area of the mind which does not think, but conceives and intuits.

There are vast and powerful systems of breathing that can stimulate the mind, sometimes to excess. Deep meditation requires only that the breath be systematically slowed or lengthened. This happens naturally as we go within, but can be encouraged by a method of breathing called kalibasa in Shum, my language of meditation. During kalibasa, the breath is counted, nine counts as we inhale, hold one count, nine counts as we exhale, hold one count. The length of the beats, or the rhythm of the breath, will slow as the meditation is sustained, until we are counting to the beat of the heart, hridaya spanda pranayama. This exercise allows awareness to flow into an area of the mind that is intensely alive, peaceful, blissful and conceives the totality of a concept rather than thinking out the various parts.

Control of the breath, to be learned properly, might take months or even years. That’s all right. If you were learning to play a musical instrument, it would take months or even years to perfect the basic principles of making chords and putting chords together into a melody. There is no hurry. Hurry is the age we want to bypass when we meditate. The control of the breath is exactly the same as the control of awareness, so it is good to be patient in the early stages and perfect each element of practice.

During medi tation, the breath, the heartbeat, metabolism–it all slows down, just like in sleep. You know, deep meditation and deep sleep are extremely similar. Therefore, the practice of pranayama–regulation of the breath and the pranas, the currents of the body, should really be mastered first. In the very same way, the dancer doesn’t just start out dancing. He starts out exer cis ing first. He may exercise strenuously for a year before he begins to really dance. The pianist doesn’t sit down at the piano and start with a concert. He starts with the scales and with the chords. He starts by limbering his fingers, by perfecting his rhythm and posture. Meditation has to be taught like one of the fine arts. It’s only the finely refined person who can really learn to meditate. Not everyone who wants to meditate can learn to meditate. Not everyone who wants to learn to dance or to play the piano can learn how to really, really do it. We need this preparation of the physical body so that the physical and emotional bodies behave themselves while you are in a deep state of meditation.

Your breath will slow down un til you almost seem to stop breathing. Sometimes you do, and you’re breathing with an inner breath. You have to educate yourself to that so it doesn’t make you fearful and bring you out of meditation with a jerk and a gasp, which can then inhibit you. You can get fearful in meditation. So, good basics must be learned for one to become a deep meditator. You can spend hours or years working with the breath. Find a good teacher first, one who keeps it simple and gentle. You don’t need to strain. Start simply by slowing the breath down. Breathe by moving the diaphragm in stead of the chest. This is how children breathe, you know. So, be a child. If you learn to control the breath, you can be master of your awareness.

As we learn to breathe rhythmically and from the diaphragm, we also release tensions in the solar plexus. We learn to be spontaneous and free on the inside, and life force runs through us in an uninhibited way. We achieve and learn to maintain contentment, santosha. All of these things come through the simple techniques we practice while in meditation. But the practice of meditation is not the end. It is the total being of man that is the end to be sought for–the well-rounded, content, spontaneous being that is totally free.

Going Within, Four Easy Steps

After you have quieted the body, and the breath is flowing regularly, close your eyes. Close your ears and shut off the external sense perceptions. As long as you are aware of sights and sounds on the outside, you are not concentrated. It is a fallacy to think you have to find a totally silent place before you can go within. When your senses are stilled, you don’t hear any sounds. You’re in a state of silence. You don’t hear a car that passes, you don’t hear a bird that sings, because your awareness has shifted to different perceptions. It helps, but it’s not necessary, to have a totally silent place. This is not always possible, so it is best not to depend on outer silence. We must discover silence within ourselves. When you are reading a book that is extremely interesting, you are not hearing noises around you. You should be at least that interested in your meditations.

Having thus quieted the outer forces, we are prepared to meditate. Just sitting is not enough. To meditate for even ten or fifteen minutes takes as much energy as one would use in running around a city block three times. A powerful meditation fills and thrills us with an abundance of energy to be used creatively in the external world during the activities of daily life. Great effort is required to make inner strides. We must strive very, very hard and meet each inner challenge.

When we go into meditation, what do we meditate upon? What do we think about during meditation? Usually the sincere devotee will have a guru, or spiritual guide, and follow his instructions. He may have a mantra, or mystic sound, which he concentrates upon, or a particular technique or attitude he is perfecting. If you have no guru or specific instructions, then here is a raja yoga exercise that can enhance inner life, making it tangibly real and opening inner doors of the mind. Use it to begin each meditation for the rest of your life.

1. Feel the Body’s Warmth: Simply sit, quiet the mind, and feel the warmth of the body. Feel the natural warmth in the feet, in the legs, in the head, in the neck, in the hands and face. Simply sit and be aware of that warmth. Feel the glow of the body. This is very easy, because the physical body is what many of us are most aware of. Take five, ten or fifteen minutes to do this. There is no hurry. Once you can feel this warmth that is created by the life force as it flows in and through the body’s cells, once you can feel this all over the body at the same time, go within to the next step.

2. Become Aware of the Nerve Currents: The second step is to feel the nerve currents of the body. There are thousands of miles of nerve currents in each of us. Don’t try to feel them all at once. Start with the little ones, with the feeling of the hands, thumbs touching, resting on your lap. Now feel the life force going through these nerves, energizing the body. Try to sense the even more subtle nerves that extend out and around the body about three or four feet. This may take a long time. When you have lo cated some of these nerves, feel the energy within them. Tune into the currents of life force as they flow through these nerves. This is a subtle feeling, and most likely awareness will wander into some other area of the mind. When this happens, gently bring it back to your point of concentration, to feeling the nerves within the body and the energy within the nerves.

3. Feel the Power Within the Spine: The third step takes us deeper inside, as we become dynamically aware in the spine. Feel the power within the spine, the powerhouse of energy that feeds out to the external nerves and muscles. Visualize the spine in your mind’s eye. See it as a hollow tube or channel through which life energies flow. Feel it with your inner feelings. It’s there, subtle and silent, yet totally intense. It is a simple feeling. We can all feel it easily. As you feel this hollow spine filled with energy, realize that you are more that energy than you are the physical body through which it flows, more that pure energy than the emotions, than the thought force. Identify yourself with this energy and begin to live your true spiritual heritage on this Earth. As you dive deeper into that energy, you will find that this great power, your sense of awareness and your willpower are all one and the same thing.

4. Become Aware of Awareness: The fourth step comes as we plunge awareness into the essence, the center of this energy in the head and spine. This requires great discipline and exacting control to bring awareness to the point of being aware of itself. This state of being totally aware that we are aware is called kaif. It is pure awareness, not aware of any object, feeling or thought. Go into the physical forces that flood, day and night, through the spine and body. Then go into the energy of that, deeper into the vast inner space of that, into the essence of that, into the that of that, and into the that of that. As you sit in this state, new energies will flood the body, flowing out through the nerve system, out into the exterior world. The nature becomes very refined in meditating in this way. Once you are thus centered within yourself, you are ready to pursue a meditation, a mantra or a deep philosophical question.

Tame Distraction

Throughout your inner investigations in meditation, cling to the philosophical principle that the mind doesn’t move. Thoughts are stationary within the mind, and only awareness moves. It flows from one thought to another, as the free citizen of the world travels through each country, each city, not attaching himself anywhere. When you are able, through practice, to sit for twenty minutes without moving even one finger, your superconscious mind can begin to express itself. It can even reprogram your subconscious and change past patterns of existence. That is one of the wonderful things about inner life. That’s why it’s inner life–it happens from the inside.

If you just sit and breathe, the inner nerve system of the body of your psyche, your soul, begins to work on the subconscious, to mold it like clay. Awareness is loosened from limited concepts and made free to move vibrantly and buoyantly into the inner depths where peace and bliss remain undisturbed for centuries. However, if you move even a finger, you externalize the entire nervous system. Like shifting gears from high to low, you change the intensity of awareness, and the outer nerve system then is active. Superconscious programming ceases, awareness returns to the body and the senses, and the external mind takes over. By sitting still again at this point, it is just a matter of a few minutes for the forces to quiet and awareness to soar in and in once again. Sitting quietly in this state, you will feel when the superconscious nerve system begins to work in the physical body. You may feel an entirely different flow through your muscles, your bones and your cells. Let it happen.

As you sit to meditate, awareness may wander into past memories or future happenings. It may be distracted by the senses, by a sound or by a feeling of discomfort in the body. This is natural in the early stages. Gently bring awareness back to your point of concentration. Don’t criticize awareness for wandering, for that is yet another distraction. Distractions will disappear if you become intensely interested and involved in your meditation. In such a state you won’t even feel the physical body. You have gone to a movie, read a book or sat working on a project on your computer that was so engrossing you only later discovered your foot had fallen asleep for a half hour because it was in an awkward position. Similarly, once we are totally conscious on the inside, we will never be distracted by the physical body or the outside.

If distractions keep coming up in meditation over a long period of time, then perhaps you are not ready to meditate. There has to be a point where distractions stop. Until then you are hooked very strongly into the instinctive or intellectual area of the mind, and the whole idea of meditation won’t inspire you very much. Therefore, you need something to spur you on inwardly. In Hinduism when this occurs, the grace of the satguru is sought. By going to your guru openly, you receive darshana, a little extra power that moves awareness permanently out of the areas of distraction. You are then able to sit in inner areas for long periods of time. Distractions become fewer and fewer, for he has wrenched you out of the instinctive and intellectual areas and changed the energy flow within your body. Learn from Your Sleep

Get into the habit of meditating before sleep each night. If you catch yourself dropping off to sleep while sitting for meditation, know that your meditation is over. The best thing to do is to deliberately go to sleep, because the spiritual power is gone and has to be invoked or opened up again. After getting ready for bed, sit in the lotus position and have a dynamic meditation for as long as you can. When you feel drowsy, you may deliberately put your body to sleep in this way. Mentally say to yourself, “Prana in the left leg, flow, go to sleep. Prana in the right leg, flow, go to sleep. Prana in the left arm, flow, go to sleep. Prana in the right arm, flow, go to sleep. Torso prana, flow, go to sleep. Head filled with inner light, go to sleep.” The first thing you know, it’s morning.

The whole dream and sleep world is very interesting. Often we go into inner planes of consciousness at night. How do you know if you have been in meditation all through the night, studying at the inner-plane school in higher states of mind? You will wake up all of a sudden with no interim period of sleepiness. You wake up invigorated. There you are, as if you came out of nowhere back into external consciousness. Otherwise, you wake up through the subconscious dream world. You feel a little off-key, and you know that you have been in the dream or astral world or the realms of intellectual aggressiveness much of the night. Striving yoga students do go into inner-plane meditation schools for short periods of time during their sleeping hours. This occurs when the mind is a well-trained mind, a keen mind, a crystal-clear mind.

Perhaps by this time you have seen the clear white light, or less intense inner light, and you have seen how crystal clear and sharp it is. Each thought, each feeling, each action has to be crystal clear and sharp to maintain and bring through a balance of your consciousness to the external world. When this happens, you have control over these states of consciousness, so much so that you are your own catalyst, and you can slide into higher states and out to external states of consciousness without being disturbed by one or the other.

When we act and react in daily affairs, we dream at night. We are living in the external or the aggressive magnetic force, called pingala. Thus, we dream in pictures. Should a yogi live in the passive force, the magnetic indrawn force, called ida, he feels and emotes on the astral plane. He would have a fretful, eventful night, an emotional night. He would not dream in pictures as much as he would in feeling. When one is living in the pure spiritual force, sushumna, the primary life force, he flows from sleep into meditation. The meditator should strive to put his body to sleep consciously and deliberately, after balancing the external and internal magnetic forces. So, whether he is lying down in his body or sitting in the lotus posture, he is in deep meditation, going to schools of learning and schools of spiritual unfoldment within his own mind. In the morning, many of my students remember inner-plane class activities which occurred during the night, not as a dream but as their own experience. So, you can meditate while you sleep, but don’t sleep while you are meditating!

Clear the Subconscious

After you have practiced meditation for some time, your inner vision will become keen and clear. For a while there may be the feeling of arrival, that you have at last conquered life’s cycles, that you are pure now and free at last. But soon, layer by layer, your past will begin to unfold itself to you as your subconscious mind shows you in vivid, pictorial form all the vibratory rates you have put into it in this life. Like a tape recorder, it begins to play back the patterns and vibrations of previous cause and effect.

Since some of these memories and actions may not have been complimentary, you may try to avoid looking at them. The more you avoid facing them, the more apparent they will become. You might think that everyone is seeing them, but they are not. This natural phase of spiritual unfoldment can be a pitfall, for these associations and attachments of the past seem temporarily attractive as they pass before the mind’s eye. Old desires, old friends, old and comfortable habits you thought were gone now come up to tempt awareness, to pull it back into a seemingly desirable past. This event should not be taken too seriously. It is natural and necessary, but you must avoid a fear of the process, which, in order to stop the unpleasant feedback, often brings people to stop their efforts at meditation. This is not the time to stop meditating. Nor is it the time to avoid the past. It is the time to fully review each year of your life that led you to where you are now.

As you remain inwardly poised, watching the images of life but remaining detached, they gradually fade away, leaving awareness free to dive ever deeper into superconscious realms. This sometimes intense experience brings you into renewed desire to live the kind of life that does not produce distorted images. You become religious and consciously shape up your lifestyle according to the yamas and niyamas, so that the reverberation of each action is positive in the subconscious. You have seen the uncom pli mentary results of living according to the moods and emotions of the instinctive mind and the senses, and that experience has taught a great lesson. In reviewing life according to this new guideline, you may change your profession, your address, your diet and values. You will undoubtedly find new friends, for it is essential to associate with people that are of good character. Choose your friends carefully, but don’t get too closely attached. People clinging to people is one of the biggest deterrents to the life of meditation.

Generally as soon as someone gets on the path and starts meditating, he wants to tell everyone else how to do it even before he has learned himself. This socializing never produces inner results. Keep your meditation abilities and activities to yourself. Don’t talk about inner things with anyone but your guru. When it comes others’ time to turn within, they will do so naturally, just as you did. That is the law.

Live a Harmonious Life

Good interpersonal relationships help the meditator a great deal, and meditation helps keep those relations harmonious. When we get along nicely with others, meditation becomes easy. If we have problems with other people, if we argue or disagree mentally and verbally, we must work exceedingly diligently in order to regain the subtlety of meditation. Poor interpersonal relationships are one of the biggest barriers, for they antagonize awareness, causing it to flow through the instinctive and intellectual forces. This puts stress and strain on the nerve system and closes inner doors to superconsciousness.

If we cannot get along with our fellow man, whom we watch closely, observing the expressions on his face and the inflections of his voice, how will we ever get along with the forces of the subconscious, which we cannot see, or the refined superconscious areas of the inner mind, when we face them in meditation? Obviously, we must conquer and harmonize all our relationships–not by working to change the other person, but by working with that other person within ourself, for we are only seeing in him what is in us. He becomes a mirror. We cannot allow the unraveling of the relationship by attempted outer manipulation, discussion or analysis to become a barrier to deeper meditation. Instead, we must internalize everything that needs change, work within ourselves and leave other people out of it. This helps to smooth interpersonal relationships; and as these relationships improve, so does our ability to meditate.

Our nerve system is just like a harp. It can be played by other people. They can cause many tones to be heard in our nerve system. All styles of music can be played on a harp, but no matter what kind of music is played, the harp remains the same. People can do all sorts of things to our nervous system, and make patterns of tone and color appear. This does not hurt the nervous system. It, like the harp, remains the same. The same nervous system can be played by our superconscious or by our passions. We can experience beautiful knowledge from within, which is the outgrowth of good meditation abilities, or experience a mental argument with another person. All tones are played at different times through the same nervous system. We want our nervous system to be played from the inside out through the beautiful rhythm of superconsciousness. This is bliss. We do not want to allow other people to affect our nerve system in a negative way, only in a positive way. That is why it is imperative for those on the path to be in good company.

Realize that You Are Wonderful

Now we are in a new age. Everything is changing. Everything is different. We must believe that we can change by using our powers of meditation, for we are here, on the surface of this Earth, to value and fulfill our existence. Value yourself and your fellow man. Say to yourself again and again, “I am the most wonderful person in the whole world!” Then ask yourself, “Why? Because of my unruly subconscious? Not necessarily. Because of what I know intellectually? Not so. I am the most wonderful person in the world because of the great spiritual force that flows through my spine, head and body, and the energy within that, and the That within that.”

Know full well that you can realize the very essence of this energy in this life. Feel the spine and the power within it that gives independence, enthusiasm and control. Then say to yourself, over and over, “I am a wonderful person,” until you can fully and unreservedly believe it. Lean on your own spine. Depending on the greatness within is the keynote of this new age. Get your willpower going. If you find an unruly part of your nature, reprogram it, little by little, using the yamas and niyamas as your guideline. Live a dynamic, God-like life every day. Dance with Siva, live with Siva and merge with Siva. Get into this area of the mind called meditation. Make it a fundamental part of your life, and all forms of creativity, success and greatness will find expression in your life. Everyone is on this planet for one purpose. That purpose will be known to you through your powers of meditation, through seeing and then finally realizing your Self at the very core of the universe itself.

Enjoy Unbridled Inspiration

Concentration has to be practiced and perfected before meditation can begin. If you find that you are sitting and trying not to fall asleep for a half hour, you have only accomplished sitting and trying not to go to sleep for half an hour–and perhaps refraining from scratching your nose when it begins to itch. But that cannot be called meditation. Meditation is a transforming state of mind, really. A person once said to me, “Well, I concentrate my mind by reading a book, and when I’m reading, I don’t hear a thing.” This is not concentration, but attention, the first step to concentration. Concentration is thinking about one definite thing for a given length of time until you begin to understand what you are thinking about. What should we concentrate upon? Start with any solid object. Take your watch, for instance. Think about your watch. Think about the crystal. Think about the hands. Let your mind direct itself toward the mechanism of your watch, and then observe how your mind, after a few moments, begins to wander and play tricks on you. You may start thinking about alarm clocks or a noise in the street.

Each time your concentration period is broken by a distraction, you must start all over again. Breathe deeply and coordinate all the energies of your body so that you are not distracted by an itch or a noise. Direct your awareness once again to your watch. Before you know it, you will be thinking about a movie you saw four weeks ago and living through all the fantasies of it again without realizing that ten minutes of your time has gone by. Be careful and gentle with your awareness, however. Bring it back to the object of your concentration in a firm, relaxed manner and say to yourself, “I am the master of my thought.” Eventually, your awareness will begin to do just what you want it to.

Once you are able to direct your awareness, without wavering, upon one object, you will begin to understand what you are concentrating upon, and you will find that this state of understanding is the beginning of your meditation. You are more alive in this state than you were in the noisy condition of your mind before you began to concentrate, and you come forth from your meditation a little wiser than you were before you went in.

The next state of consciousness, which is attained when meditation has been perfected, is contemplation. In the contemplative state of awareness you will feel the essence of all life pouring and radiating through your body and through the object you have been meditating upon. When contemplation is sustained, the final step is samadhi, and that is finding or becoming your true Self, which is beyond all conditions of your mind, all phases of consciousness. Only after you have attained samadhi can you answer the question “Who am I?” from your own experience. Only then will you know that you are all-pervasive, and finally, in the deepest samadhi, that you are causeless, timeless, spaceless and that you have been able to realize this through a balance of your awakened inner and outer consciousness, a bringing together of the forces of your mind in yoga, or union.


1 Create your sacred space. Keep it clean and uplifting.

2 The only bad meditation is the one you skip. Use the power of habit. A strong meditation habit will carry you forward with less effort.

3 Decide on your meditation subject or goal and stick to it.

4 Meditation is hard work. The more effort you give to it, the more results you get back from it. Meditate when it’s not easy. That is when the most progress takes place.

5 Learn to work past the obstacles of distraction.

6 Nurture curiosity; make your innersearch engaging.

7 Perfect your technique, but work equally hard to nurture the right spirit. It’s the spirit/ will that matters most.

8 Move from each meditation to a positive external activity, and from a positive project into meditation. Let the external energies impel your seeking, and let your inner discoveries inform your outer life.

9 Meditate in the morning before you read your e-mail, open the newspaper or turn on the TV.

10 Become what you seek to experience. The quality of your meditations is a reflection of the state of your nerve system and the purity of your karmas.

11 Keep working on yourself between meditations.

12 Progress is cyclical, like a spiral. There are ups and downs, but the trajectory overall is always up. Enjoy the days when the wind is in your sails, and work on the other days extra hard.

13 Keep expectations realistic and achievable.

14 Write down your insights when they come, bringing them into words to impress the subconscious.


“I am not the physical body, nor am I the five organs of sense-perception; I am not the five organs of external activity, nor am I the five vital forces, nor am I even the thinking mind.” Ramana Maharishi

“A conscious bliss ensues when one abides as the Self, by inquiring ‘What is the true import of I?’ This bliss is spontaneous, indestructible and limitless.” These are the words of Ramana Maharishi (1879-1950), the renowned sage of Arunachala, South India, whose widely popular approach to meditation is called Atma-vichara, or Self inquiry. It epitomizes the path of discovery propounded in the Advaita Vedanta teachings of the Smarta Sampradaya.

Ramana spoke little and defied all efforts to have his teachings distilled into a set of instructions for meditation, but much can be learned from the gems of wisdom that he did confer regarding the path of Self knowing. In the English translation of Upadesa Manjari (A Bouquet of Spiritual Instruction), published in 1939, the sage is asked: “What is the correct method of practice for the disciple to adopt and follow?” The answer: “In the first instance, it should be recognized that the Atman, or the Self, is not something existing separate and distinct from the seeker, which he has yet to obtain, as it were, from without. Considering further that there is nothing loftier or more sublime than the object of his quest, which is identical with himself, he that would earnestly try to attain Liberation should initially proceed to discriminate between what is permanent and abiding and what is not. By this discriminative insight, he should know beyond doubt and free from misconception what he really is, i.e., in what his real Being consists. Realizing thus his true and natural state, he should remain changeless, firmly established therein. This is the correct method of practice, or sadhana, and is called the Vichara Marga, which is pre-eminently instrumental in gaining direct and immediate knowledge of the Self.

“Jnana is the utter annihilation of the mind by making it realize its absolute identity with the Atman, or the Self, by incessant practice of dhyana (meditation) or vichara (inquiry in quest of the Self). Utter annihilation of the mind is synonymous with that state of pure Being in which all effort (either to control or to direct it, which is necessary only if the mind is wayward or in any way subject to the influence of mundane existence) has finally ceased. Those who have attained that state never swerve from it. What is called Mauna, or Quiescence, is verily that state of pure Being.

“In sadhana, one should pay particular attention to the following points:

(a) “If the aspirant would only devote every minute spent in vain thinking about objects, which constitute the not-Self, in earnest inquiry in quest of the Self, he would, in a very short time, attain Self-Realization.

(b) “Until the mind obtains a firm and steady hold on the state of pure Being, practice of profound meditation tinged with religious emotion (bhavana) is essential, for, otherwise, the mind becomes an easy prey to wayward thoughts or is overcome by sleep.

(c) “The aspirant must not waste his time in an endless and vain repetition of such scriptural dicta as ‘Sivoham’ (the Supreme Lord am I) or ‘Aham Bra hma smi’ (I am Bra hman), which is considered characteristic of nir gun opa sana. Instead, the aspirant should, with the strength of mind he gains by such devout repetition, or upasana, practice At ma vi chara, or investigation in quest of the Self even as he is, without the superimposition of such ideas as ‘I am Brahman,’ etc.

(d) “The excellence of the sadhana, or the method of practice, adopted consists essentially in not yielding, by every possible means, any scope for obsessing thoughts of any kind to enter into the mind.”

In his book Who Am I?, ca 1922, Siva pra kasam Pillai captured the famous discourse by that name which he heard Sri Ramana give twenty years earlier. Here are brief excerpts:

“Who am I? I am not the physical body, nor am I the five organs of sense-perception; I am not the five organs of external activity, nor am I the five vital forces, nor am I even the thinking mind. Neither am I that unconscious state of nescience that retains merely the subtle vasanas (latencies of the mind), being then free from the functional activity of the sense organs and of the mind, and being unaware of the existence of the objects of sense-perception.

“Therefore, summarily rejecting all the above mentioned physical adjuncts and their functions, saying, ‘I am not this; no, nor am I this, not this,’ that which then remains separate and alone by itself, that pure Awareness, verily am I. This Awareness is by its very nature Sat-Chit-Ananda (Existence-Consciousness-Bliss).

“By a steady and continuous investigation into the nature of the mind, the mind is transformed into That to which the ‘I’ refers, and that is verily the Self.

“Even when extraneous thoughts sprout up during such inquiry, do not seek to complete the rising thought, but, instead, deeply inquire within, ‘To whom has this thought occurred?’ No matter how many thoughts thus occur to you, if you would, with acute vigilance, inquire immediately, as and when each individual thought arises, as to whom it has occurred, you would find it is to ‘me.’ If, then, you inquire, ‘Who am I?’ the mind gets introverted, and the rising thought also subsides. In this manner, as you persevere more and more in the practice of Self-inquiry, the mind acquires increasing strength and power to abide in its Source.”

Our thanks to Master Nome of the Society of Abidance in Truth (http:/www.SATRamana.org [http:/www.SATRamana.org]) for providing the citations from the teachings of Sri Ramana Maharishi for this Educational Insight.


“Do you need happiness? Then do just three things: meditate regularly, smile soulfully and love untiringly.” Sri Chinmoy

No matter which path you follow for meditation, the first and foremost task is to try to make the mind calm and quiet. If the mind is constantly roaming, if it is all the time a victim of merciless thoughts, then you will make no progress whatsoever. The mind has to be made calm and quiet so that when the light descends from above, you can be fully conscious of it. In your conscious observation and conscious acceptance of light, you will enter into a profound meditation and see the purification, transformation and illumination of your life.

How will you make the mind calm and quiet? The mind has its own power, and right now this power is stronger than your present eagerness and determination to meditate. But if you can get help from your heart, then gradually you will be able to control your mind. The heart, in turn, gets constant assistance from the soul, which is all light and power. If you can keep your mind calm and quiet for ten or fifteen minutes, a new world will dawn within you.

On the problem of falling asleep in meditation. When you meditate you have to be absolutely dynamic. Do not allow sleepiness to enter into you. When you sit down to meditate, feel that you are entering into the battlefield where you have to fight against ignorance, imperfection and death.

The best thing is to breathe in deeply a few times before you meditate and make your whole body energetic. This dynamic energy will help you enter into meditation. If possible, take a small quantity of hot juice or hot milk before you begin your meditation also.

With each breath, try to feel that a stream of energy is entering into you. Then try to feel that you are breathing in through different parts of your body: your eyes, your ears, your forehead, your shoulders, the crown of your head and so on. Feel that each of these places is a door, and when you breathe in feel that you are opening this door. At that time, energy enters into you from the Universal Consciousness. Then try to invoke the power aspect of the Supreme. Do not invoke peace or light; only try to bring forward divine power from within or bring it down from above.

Lethargy and sleep come during meditation because sincere interest is lacking. If sincere interest is there, there will be no tendency to sleep. When a student wants to be first in school, when he has a real, sincere interest, then he studies without being forced by his parents. You should always try to be eager and enthusiastic about meditation. If you feel that you cannot meditate for half an hour, then plan to meditate for ten minutes. Then you will feel, “Oh, only ten minutes. Easily I can do that.” If your goal is very near, then you will give it all your energy.

On the necessity of meditating every day. If you are serious about your spiritual life, then you have to meditate at least once a day. If you are very enthusiastic, you can meditate three times a day–early in the morning, at noon or during your lunch hour, and in the evening. Your morning and evening meditations can be for a longer time, for fifteen minutes or half an hour, whereas your noon meditation can be as short as five or ten minutes. If it is not possible to feed your soul three times a day, then please feed it at least once. Feel that the soul is a little divine child. If you don’t feed the divine child within you, it will not be able to grow and manifest your inner divine qualities and your soul’s possibilities.

It is better to meditate well just once a day in the morning than to sit five or six times a day with your eyes closed and just have pleasant thoughts drifting through your head. Before the sun rises, the earth-consciousness is not yet agitated. The world has not yet entered into its daily turmoil. Nature is calm and quiet and will help you meditate. Whether you meditate in the morning or the evening, it is of paramount importance to have a fixed time for your meditation.

On the benefits of group meditation. When you meditate with others, you can be of real help to them, and they can be of real help to you. Nobody meditates well every day. Let us say that today you are in a very high state of consciousness, while the person who is sitting beside you is not in his highest consciousness. If both of you are meditating together, your aspiration and even your very presence will inspire and lift up that person. Then, tomorrow it may happen that you are not inspired to go high, whereas the other person is in a high consciousness. At that time he will be able to lift you up. So, collective meditation is meant for mutual help.

During collective meditation try to feel that others are not separate entities. Feel that you are the only person meditating, and that you are entirely responsible for the meditation. It is always advisable that the disciples of one spiritual master meditate only with those on their own path or with those who have not yet chosen a path.

Is Vegetarianism Vital To Success in Meditation? Sri Chinmoy’s Response

Purity is of paramount importance for an aspirant. This purity we must establish in the body, in the vital and in the mind. When we eat meat, the aggressive animal consciousness enters into us. Our nerves become agitated and restless, and this can interfere with our meditation. If a seeker does not stop eating meat, generally he does not get subtle experiences or subtle visions.

The mild qualities of fruits and vegetables help us to establish in our inner life, as well as in our outer life, the qualities of sweetness, softness, simplicity and purity. If we are vegetarians, this helps our inner being to strengthen its own existence. Inwardly, we are praying and meditating; outwardly, the food we are taking from Mother Earth is helping us, too, giving us not only energy but also inspiration.

Many spiritual seekers have come to the conclusion that a vegetarian is in a position to make quicker progress in the spiritual life. But along with a vegetarian diet, one must pray and meditate. If one has aspiration, the vegetarian diet will help considerably; the body’s purity wil help one’s inner aspiration to become more intense and more soulful.

Dhyana or Meditation In Hindu Tradition

This essays explores the practice of dhyana or meditation in Hinduism, from a historical perspective, based on the Hindu scriptures such as the Veda Samhitas, the Upanishads, the Bhagavadgita and the Tantra shastras, with a brief analysis of meditation practices of Jainism and Buddhism

The purpose of meditation or dhyana is to become consciously aware of or investigate into one’s own mind and body to know oneself. It is essentially an exclusive as well as an inclusive process, in which one withdraws one’s mind and senses from the distractions of the world and contemplates upon a chosen object or idea with concentration. It is focused thinking with or without the exercise of individual will, in which the mind and the body has to be brought together to function as one harmonious whole. With the help of meditation we can overcome our mental blocks, negative thinking, debilitating fears, stress and anxiety by knowing their cause and dealing with them.

In dhyana we gain insightful awareness whereby we can control over our responses and reactions. Through its regular practice, we come to understand the nature of things, the impermanence of our corporeal existence, the fluctuations of our minds, the source of our own suffering and its possible resolution. The difference between meditation and contemplation is mostly academic. According to, some meditation is an insightful observation and contemplation a concentrated reflection, with detachment being the common factor between the two. In this essay both the words are used interchangeably to convey the same meaning as dhayna.

Dhyana is a Sanskrit word. “Dhi” means receptacle or the mind and “yana” means moving or going. Dhyana means journey or movement of the mind. It is a mental activity of the mind (dhi). In Hindu philosophy, the mind (manas) is viewed as a receptacle (dhi) into which thoughts pour back and forth from the universal pool of thought forms. According to Hindu tradition, the human mind has the creative potency of God. You become what you think. You are a sum total of your thoughts and desires, not only of this life but also of your past lives. What you think and desire grows upon you, becomes part of your latent impressions (samskaras) and influence the course of your life here and here after. These samskaras determine the future course of your lives as they accompany you to the next world. All your mental actions are part of your karma as much as any physical action. Even the animals have the ability to evolve into higher being through their mental focus.

Meditation is observing the inward and outward movement of thoughts that are coming and going out of the mind, with silence (maunam), stability (dhiram) and detachment (vairagyam). According to Hindu theories of creation, all the beings and worlds emanated from God (mentioned as Brahma in some scriptures and Brahman in others) through meditation only. Its mysteries and its dimensions can be comprehended in transcendental states of self-absorption which is possible through meditation only. Since each individual is a carbon copy of the universe, by understanding ourselves we can understand the manifest universe. Thus our ancient rishis practiced meditation and contemplation to discover the truths concerning themselves and the world around them. In their deep meditative states they envisioned the Vedic wisdom and Universal Self. Since the knowledge poured forth into their receptive and stabilized minds from the universal consciousness, on its own, without any egoistic intention or selfishness on their part, it is considered as not man made (apaurusheya), but divine and truthful (pramana).

All thoughts and knowledge exist in the universe. We do not create thoughts, although we erroneously believe so, just as we are not the real doers of our actions, as declared in the Bhagavadgita, but mere instruments in the hands of God. We can only receive them and make meaning out of them according to the flow of our inclinations, intentions, intellect and attitudes. The most exalted spiritual truths are revealed to us in our moments of reverential silence, when our minds are focused, the senses and the self-sense are asleep and the desires are extinguished. The six Hindu schools of philosophy are so called darshanas (visions) because they are products of such receptive process in which knowledge was envisioned (darsanam) in the pit of the human mind that was untainted by the impurities of worldly life. While the followers of respective schools may argue or quarrel about the merits and demerits of their respective systems of philosophy, from a spiritual perspective, we hold them to be different standpoints of the same universal knowledge revealed to man at different points of time in history, and like any other standpoint they represent a particular view of the reality and do not wholly represent the universal reality itself, which is well rounded, eternal, infinite and absolute in itself without divisions, grades and contradictions.

The Vedic seers did not use the word dhyana in the early Vedic theology. But through their own personal experience, they were aware of the importance of the mind and its ability to manifest things. They viewed creation as the mental manifestation of the Isvara or Brahman, the universal Self and they believe through austerities and penances man could acquire similar potencies. The creation of an alternate heaven(trisanku) by sage Viswamitra is a case in point. According to Jenine Miller, a British scholar, the Vedic prayer was a form of dhyana in which the two sense functions, “vision and sound, seership and singing are intimately connected.”

The Vedic concept of dhayna or meditation seems to have evolved gradually with the emergence of Upanishadic thought and the idea that man personified the entire universe within himself and by himself and that hidden deep within him was an eternal principle that was Universal Self in its individual aspect. Either man (purusha) was a projection of the universe in its own mode or the universe was a projection of the individual self (purusha) in its own form. Both views enjoyed patronage of scholarly minds. If the former was true, our existence was ephemeral and part of a much larger dream, and If the latter was true, then the universe might be an illusion. In either case the world seemed to be unreal or illusory, a view that caught the attention of Hindu scholars for centuries and found its way into the monistic (advauta) philosophy of Shankara.

Miller proposed the view that in the beginning the Vedic seers held Brahman to be a meditative state, not a universal entity. She suggested that the Vedic seers practiced three different types of meditation and were familiar with three states of transcendental reality, which they identified with Brahman. In addition they were also familiar with the forth state although it was not explicitly mentioned in the early Vedic hymns. They are:

             Mantric meditation or meditation on the Vedic mantras with concentration,

             Visual meditation or meditation on a particular deity with illumined thought,

             Absorption in mind and heart or meditation on illumined insight residing in the mind and the heart.

             Samadhi or the experience of the ecstatic state of Brahman was the fourth state of Brahman, which is not mentioned in the Rigveda but described in the Mandukya Upanishad as the Fourth state (turiya)..

The early Vedic hymns may not mention the word dhyana or dharana explicitly, but we have indications in the scriptures to believe that the Rigvedic seers were familiar with contemplative and meditative methods of self-enquiry. The Upanishads are not speculative works of human imagination, but revelatory scriptures envisioned by the Seers as they were exploring the riddles of human existence. Similarly the Vedic hymns, constituting the samhitas, were transmitted to them in deep meditative states.

Apart from the Seers and Rishs, the Vedic texts mention many types of ascetics, including kesins, the long haired ones, who appear to have practiced some kind of breath control, with elements of shamanism, mantra and tantra yoga, and had the ability to display some siddhis (perfectiosn) such as levitation. Vratyas were another group of ascetics, outside the pale of Vedic society, who seem to have been treated rather unfairly by the Vedic scholars and who practiced austerities and esoteric rituals, some of which found their way into Hinduism possibly through Saivism.

Descriptions of meditation practice in the Upanishads

In the Upanishads words such as dhaya, dhvai, manta, drsti, mati are used to denote meditation. Tapas was a more popular spiritual practice in which meditation formed part of a set of austerities and penances that were aimed to generate bodily heat or inner fire to burn away the impurities of the mind and the body. Tapas was rooted in Vedic tradition, a system by itself, having its own body of practices, which thrived prior to the emergence of the classical yoga as a standard spiritual practice. It was practiced by many seers and sages of the Vedic and epic age, who believed that tapas was the source of the creative potency even in case of gods. According to the Rigveda, the word emanated from the primordial Being by the great heat of austerity (tapas) Another word that is used in the Upanishads frequently to denote meditation is “upasana”, a meditative practice that seems to have gradually evolved into dhyana. Compared to upasana, dhayana is a more concentrated and meditative practice without the outward ritual component and the devotional fervor. The word upansana is used in the Upanishads in a boarder sense to denotes ritual worship or service, with or without the employment of udgita (Aum), ritual chants or sacrificial mantras. The practice seems to have developed with the evolution of the Vedic thought, as is evident in the Briahdaranyaka Upanishad, one of the earliest Upanishads, which led to the identification of the human body with the cosomos, internalization of Vedic ritual and internal worship, through contemplation, of various divinities such as the vital breaths, fire, water, speech, mind, the eyes, the body and the consciousness, each representing a particular aspect of the manifest creation. In this progressive form of meditation, which proceeded from the outer to the inner, worshipping the inmost Self or Brahman was considered to be the best

These early ideas gradually gave way to more advanced forms of meditation which sought to control the mind and the body for experiencing various transcendental states of consciousness. The knowledge of these states was kept confidential and expressed mostly in symbolic terms. Brahman was now recognized as the highest and supreme Reality rather than mere meditative state. The realization that beyond all divinities existed the resplendent and inmost Self and that it could be attained by withdrawing the outgoing senses, stabilizing the mind and concentrating upon the inmost Self, gave way to the emergence of dhyana as an essential and useful contemplative technique. In this process, silence (mauna) and renunciation of worldly life were the contributing or facilitating factors The Chandogya Upanishad

The Chandogya Upanishad reflects this progressive development in the Vedic thought. The Upanishad views meditation or contemplation (dhyna) as a journey into oneself till one reaches the reality that is permanent, reliable and beyond which there is nothing else to be found or realized. It explains the various ways in which one can meditate upon Aum (udgita). In a conversation between Narada and Sanatkumara, which is recorded in the Upanishad, the latter explains the progressive forms of meditation (upasana) upon the various aspects of the mind and the body, from the outer to the inner, in order to overcome suffering and realize the true nature of Brahman. He begins by saying that one should meditate (upasana) upon the name (nama) as Brahman, then the speech (vak), then the mind (manas), then the cit consciousness (citta), then contemplation (dhyana), then intelligence (vijnanam), then strength (balam), then food (annam), then water, then heat, then ether and so on. Each of these methods of meditations said to result in some specific benefit.

The following verse from the Upanishad “Contemplation is assuredly greater than thought. The earth contemplates as it were. The atmosphere contemplates as it were. The heaven contemplates as it were. The waters contemplate as it were, the mountains contemplate as it were. Gods and men contemplate as it were. Therefore he among men here attains greatness, he seems to have obtained a share of (the reward of) contemplation. Now the small people of quarrelsome, abusive and slandering, the superior men have obtained a share of (the reward of) contemplation. Meditate on contemplation.”

The verse identifies stability or firmness as the outcome of contemplation (dhyana), a concept that became the focal point in the subsequent scriptures such as the Yogasutra and the Bhagavadgita. According to the Upanishad, contemplation is better than routine thinking because the former leads to stability while the latter leads to disturbances. The earth and the mountains are firm and stable because they are forever immersed in meditation. So men too can achieve greatness and firmness through contemplation. Ordinary people have no control on their minds so they speak carelessly. But superior men control their thoughts and speech because of contemplation.

The Katha Upanishad

The Katha Upanishad also suggests a similar approach by emphasizing the need to stabilize the mind through the practice of self-contemplation (adhyatma yoga) to overcome both joy and sorrow and realize Brahman who is difficult to be seen (durdasam), deeply hidden (gudham), inside a cave (guhatitam) and dwells in the deep (gahvarestham).

Realizing through self-contemplation that primal God, difficult to be seen, deeply hidden, set in the cave (of the heart), dwelling in the deep, the wise man leaves behind both joy and sorrow.

 envisions the whole universe and its constituent parts being in a state of deep meditation.

The Svetasvatara Upanishad

The Svetasvatara Upanishad, with its definitive leanings towards Saivism, mentions the word “dhyana-yoga” in one verse and “dhyana” in two verses suggestive of the changing times and the systematization of the knowledge of yoga. It declares that those who practiced dhayna-yoga saw the self power of the divine (devatma sakti) hidden in His own qualities (sva gunair nigudham) as the first cause (karanam) of creation, which they understood in their contemplative mode as a rotating wheel having fifty spokes (energies), three tires (qualities) and one hub (Isvara or God). In creation there is perishable matter (pradhana) and imperishable Lord (Hara). By meditating upon Him, uniting with him and reflecting upon Him one is freed from illusion of the world (maya nivrittih).

The Upanishad also explains how meditation should be performed. It is by using the body as the lower friction stick (arani) and the syllable aum (pranava) as the upper friction stick one may see hidden God (devam) in meditation. This effort has to be accompanied by truthfulness (satyam) and austerity (tapas). According to the Upanishad, yoga of which dhyana is an important component, is a cleansing process. Just as a mirror covered with dust is able to reflect well when it is cleaned, when through yoga we overcome the illusion and ignorance we have about ourselves and our existence, we are able to discern the Universal Self hidden in all as the source of all and transcend death.

 Maitri Upanishad

According to Maitri Upanishad, Prajapati Brahma, the creator god, being alone and unhappy, meditated upon himself (atmanam abhdhyat) and differentiated himself into diverse beings. When he found them to be lifeless and inert like stone, he entered into them and divided himself into five breaths and the internal fire (vaisvanara). Then, residing in the heart, he pierced five openings in each body and through them began enjoying things using the five senses as his reigns. The Upanishad further states that when the soul resides in the body and mind which is made up of the elements, it is known as the elemental-self (bhutatma). The elemental-self does not remember its highest state (parama padam) because of ignorance. It becomes free from such an evil existence (papam) only when it gains the knowledge of Brahman (Brahma vidya) through the triad, namely knowledge (vidya), austerity (tapas) and meditation (cinta). The Upanishad distinguishes two types of Brahman, the one with form and the other without form. Of the two, the formless Brahman is real, upon whom one should meditate as Aum to become united with Him.

The Six fold Yoga

Apart from the three fold practice mentioned above, the Maitri Upanishad prescribes six fold yoga (sadanga yoga) for the liberation of the elemental soul from both good and evil. It consists of control of breath (pranayama), withdrawal of the senses (pratyahara), meditation (dhyanam), dharana (concentration), logical enquiry (tarka) and self-absoprtion (samadhi). In contrast to the classical yoga of Patanjali, in this yoga, concentration (dharana) comes after dhyana. Probably in this system dhyana means passive meditation and tarka means concentrated meditation. According to S.Radhakrishnan, it is contemplative enquiry or reflective self-absorption (savitarka samadhi ). “It may also mean an enquiry whether the mind has become transformed or not into object of meditation or investigation into the hindrances of concentration caused by the inferior powers acquired by meditation.”15. The Upanishad mentions a higher concentration technique (parasya dharana) of seeing Brahman through contemplative thought (tarka), known as lumbika-yoga. It consists of holding the tip of the tongue down the palate, restraining the speech, the mind and the breath and seeing the (shining) self through the (elemental or impure ) self.

The Paingala Upanishad

The Paingala Upanishad distinguishes four kinds of spiritual practice to attain Brahman and explains the purport of each. They are hearing (sravanam), reflection (mananam), meditation (nidhidhaysanam) and self realization (atma darsana). Investigation into the meaning and purpose (vakyartha vicara) of the Vedic mantras such as “Thou art That,” and “I am Brahman,” constitute hearing (sravanam). Paying undivided attention to what is being being heard is reflection. Concentrating the thought solely on what has been understood through hearing and reflection is meditation. When the distinction between the subject and the object disappears in the heightened state of concentration, it is called cognition of the self (atma darsana). With it all the karmas become destroyed and one experiences a shower of supreme bliss coming from thousand directions. The wise call such a state as dharma megha samadhi (self-absorption of the virtuous kind). As all the impurities are removed and the past and present karmas are neutralized, the knower of Brahman becomes a liberated being (jivan mukta). When the time of his departure from this world comes, he leaves his embodied state and enters into the supreme state of non-movement (aspandatam), which is eternal, devoid of sensations, constant, alone and perfect.

The Kaivalya Upanishad

The Kaivalya Upanishad emphasizes the importance of devotion in the practice of yoga and meditation. It identifies faith (sraddha), devotion (bhakti), meditation (dhyana) and concentration as the means to know Brahman who is equated with Siva. One should meditate upon the lotus of the heart which is pure, without passion, where in lies the source of Brahma who is eternal. blue throated and companion of Uma.

The Bhagavadgita

In the Bhagavadgita, Lord Krishna touches upon the subject of dhyana on many occasions during the course of his long conversation with Arjuna. Verses 10 to 16 in the 6th chapter entitled, Dhayana Yoga, explain how and in what conditions a yogi should subdue his mind through concentration. Living alone in solitude, in a clean place covered with kusa grass, a deer skin and a cloth, one over the other, on a firm seat, a yogi, who is pure and self-controlled, without desires and free from possessions, should sit with his body, head and neck erect and concentrate his mind upon the tip of the nose. With concentration and subdued mind, he eventually attains lasting peace. So although the chapter is entitled the yoga of meditation (dhyana yoga), it basically speaks about the practice of concentration to control the mind and the senses. The same chapter defines yoga as disconnection from union with pain16. In Chapter 12 meditation is described to be superior to knowledge and renunciation of the fruit of action better than meditation from which peace follows immediately17. In Chapter 13 it is said that through dhyana one can see the Self in the Self by the Self18.

Dhyana in the Bhagavadgita

Dhyana is an important limb of the eightfold (ashtanga) yoga of Patanajali, whose work the Yogasutra, considered to be the most authoritative ancient treatise on Yoga, presents the practice of Yoga in a systematic and orderly manner. The eight limbs of yoga are inter related and are not meant to be practiced in isolation. The purpose of yoga is to control the fluctuations of the citta and facilitate its stability by cultivating purity (sattva) through a cleansing process so that one can become absorbed in oneself and realize his true identity. Of the eightfold yoga, meditation (dhyana) is penultimate limb, preceded by yama, niyama, pranayama, pratyahara, asana, dharana and followed by samadhi. All the limbs are important and complimentary. In other words success in meditation depends upon the progress achieved in other areas, especially the ones preceding it in the order. So is the case with samadhi, which is not possible unless there is perfection in all the other areas of yoga. Dhyana is an important component of classical yoga. According to Patanjali stability of the mind can be achieved by practsing meditation of objects that are pleasing to us (Yatabhimata dhyanat va)19. In the third section of the Yogasutra he defines dhyana as the steady (pratyata) and continuous flow of awareness (ekantata) towards the same point20.

The Puranas and the symbolism

The epics and the Puranas are replete with the stories of seers, sages and gods practicing yoga, tapas and other forms of spiritual practices. Some of the stories have deep symbolism, such as the story of the churning of the oceans (sagara manthanam) in which gods and demons come together to churn the ocean to extract the elixir (amrita)21. The story symbolically represents various yogic practices which culminate in immortality. In the story the ocean represents the citta (often referred as the mind stuff or cit consciousness) which is subject to mental fluctuations (citta vrittis). The gods and demons represents the pure and impure thoughts and energies of the mind and the body (the physical realm). the serpent Vasuki represent desire or the vaisvanara fire. The mount mandhara represents concentration (dharana) of the mind (manas). The churning represents the reflective or contemplative process in search of immortality. The poison that emerged during the churning represent the pain and suffering generated from the practice of austerities (tapas). Lord Siva represents the teacher who takes upon himself the suffering of his sincere disciples. The various magical objects that came out of the ocean during the churning represent the various perfections (siddhis) or supernatural powers described in the Yogasutra. Dharana (concentration) is focused bare attention and dhayana is focused meditation.

Dhyana and tantra

Saivism has many sects and each has its own set of techniques and theories of yoga, rooted in the theoretical and philosophical aspects of Saiva religious texts (Agama) and tantras some of which are left handed (vamachara) and some right handed (sadacara). The former use the mind and body, intoxicants, sexual intercourse and socially reprehensible behavior as a part of their self-cleansing process to achieve self-realization. All sects of Saivism and Shaktism worship Siva or shakti or both and aim to achieve union with them through various practices of which meditation or dhyana is an important component. Symbols and images of Shiva and shakti and various mystica diagrams (yantras) used religious worship, meditation and concentration, apart from proper conduct and devotion to keep the mind pure and elevated. The yoga traditions of Saivims go by different names such as hatha yoga, tantra yoga and kundalini yoga. According to Kularnava Tantra, one of the well known texts of Kaula tradtion composed during the medieval period, meditation is of two type coarse (sthula) and subtle (sukshma). The former is meditation on form, usually an object, image or symbol and the latter meditation on the formless, usually an abstract concept or state of Siva as pure and resplendent light, bliss. In both types of meditation, the mind has to become stable or immobile and the distinction between the subject and object shoulld disappear to achieve the ectasic state of self-absorption (samadhi).

Meditation in hatha yoga

Hatha yoga is an important offshoot of Tantrism, which aims to develop the human body, through various ascetic and yogic practices, into a strong diamond (vajra) like and divine body that would be strong and pure enough to house the splendor of Siva or Shakti. When the body is transmuted and filled with light and the higher spiritual energies it becomes a fit vehicle for enlightenment and possession extraordinary powers and abilities (siddhis) such as the will to assume any form and live in the subtle regions in the subtle body at will. Hatha yoga is followed by many traditions of Saivism but it was made popular by the natha tradition established by Gorakshanath who probably lived between 10th and 11th century C.E. Hatha yoga has many features common with the classical yoga but differ from the latter with regard to the intensity and intent of such practices. Hatha yoga used more painful and austere physical posture and cleansing processes to perfect the mind and body and make it fit transcendental experiences. Gheranda Samhita, prescribes six acts of purification for this purpose of which meditation (dhyana) is one. According to it, the postures (asana) make the body strong, the gestures (mudras) make it stable, sense withdrawal (pratyahara) leads to calmmess, breath control (pranayama) brings lightness, dhyana leads to the perception of the self and with samadhi comes the ecstasic union. Dhauli, basti, neti, lauli, trataka and kapala-bhati are the important and more specific techniques suggested by the scripture for cleansing the variuos part of the mind and the body. It also mentions three types of dhyana:

Visualization of coarse objects (sthula dhyana), considered to be the least effective of all

Contemplation of Absolute being as the light (tejo dhyana) which is said to be a hundred times better than the above.

Visualization of subtle objects (sukshma dhayna) such as the essence of the Self, which is said to be the greatest of all and hundred time better than the meditation on light.

The Goraksha Paddathi22 describes meditation as two fold, “composite (sakala) and impartite (nishkala). It is composite owing to differences in performance, and impartite owing to differences in performance,” which is also devoid of qualities (nirguna). Meditation has to be practiced by visualizing the various chakras in detail concentrating with focus on the serpent (kunadlini) starting from the base (muladhara) and gradually moving upward to the top of the head (ajna-cakra). “Anus, penis, navel, lotus, the one above that (i.e., the throat), the bell, the place of ‘hanger’ (i.e.the Uuvula), the spot between the eyebrows, and the space cavity (at the crown of the head),” are the nine locations (sthana) of the body for focusing the mind and practicing visual meditation. It is important to remember that these techniques should not be followed in isolation but in conjunction with the remaining five acts of purification described above.

Jain yoga

Our knowledge of Jain yoga comes to us mainly from the work of writes like Haribhadra Suri ( 8th century C.E). Jain yoga shares some common features with the yoga traditions of Hinduism and probably derived some of the concepts and practices from the classical yoga of Patanjali. has two components:

a preparatory course (purva seva) meant for the lay followers who have become dissolutioned with their worldly lifes and embarked upon a journey of liberation (apunar bandhaka)

and the yoga proper meant for the more advanced practitioners, who have advanced on the path and have achieved some degree of right or mixed vision (samyag drishti).

Yoga for the lay followers consists of ritual worship (pujana), proper conduct (sadacara), austerities (tapas), and no negative feelings towards liberation (mukti advesha). Five levels of practice is suggested for the advanced followers: centering in the self (adhyatma yoga), contemplation (bhavana), meditation (dhyana), equanimity (samata), cessation of the modifications (vritii samskhaya) of the consciousness. Dhayna or meditation is to be practiced everyday one or more times, but at least once for 48 minutes, by all followers of Jainism as per the techniques prescribed in their tradition.

Dhyana in Buddhism

The purpose of yoga in Buddhism to cultivate right attentiveness of the mind and the body and control the movements of the mind so that we can experience peace and equanimity (samatha). Buddhism does not believe in the existence of soul. So unlike in classical yoga or in Hinduism, annihilation of the ego-sense or the ephemeral and aggregate personality rather than realization of the self is the ultimate goal of Buddhist yoga. Through meditation practitioners of Buddhism aim to develop insight into themselves, how they think and act motivated by various desires and subject themselves to suffering in numerous ways. Thus, understanding and awareness or insight and mindfulness are the two important elements of Buddhist dhyana. Balance or the middle approach is another important aspect of this practice so that we will neither over indulge nor neglect our duty to meditate regularly. As regards to the postures (asanas), breath control (pranayama ), with drawl of the senses (pratyahara), methods and meditation and states of self-absorption, there is a correlating between the yogic practices of Buddhism and Hinduism. But as we have already said, the difference lies mainly in the intent and the ultimate purpose of all of the practices.

In truth, in Buddhism, every aspect of the mundane life, every activity and movement of the mind and the body can be an object of meditation. Various techniques are followed to cultivate insightful awareness and end suffering, such as tranquility (samatha) meditation, insightful (vipassana) meditation In samatha meditation a meditator sits in a quietly place, closing his eyes and calmly and rather passively lets go of his thoughts and desires with detachment, with his attention focused on his breathing. Whenever his attention is strayed, he brings it back to his breath. Regular practice of this meditation said to result in calmness of the mind (samatha). Insight meditation,. also known as vipassana meditation, involves a deep exploration of all the movements that arise in the consciousness with mindfulness and detachment. When a mediator becomes mindful of the contents of his mind, he develops a deep understanding of the source of his suffering and the impermanence of the world and eventually experiences peace. Sitting meditation and walking meditation are other popular forms of meditation in Buddhism.


There is an attempt on the part of some scholars to disassociate yoga and its practices like meditation from Hinduism and paint them either as non-religious or secular in nature. Yoga and its various practices have been part of Hindu tradition since the early Vedic times, long before Patanajali systematized them in his Yogasutra and the followers of Buddhism followed their meditation techniques. One should not overlook the fact that even Zen Buddhism came to China and Japan from India through Bodhidharma and the word “Zen” originated from the word “dhyana,23” which was a Sanskrit word of Hindu origin. Many ascetic traditions, including those of Jainism and Buddhism followed different versions of Yoga practiced in India since ancient times. They originated essentially from the Hindu traditions, both Vedic and non-Vedic, starting from the munis and rishis who received the knowledge of the Veda Samhitas and the Upanishads and groups like the Vratyas and the Kapalikas who were outside the pale of Vedic society. Dhyana is not meant to be practiced in isolation but as a part of various other practices which are meant to prepare the mind and the body to experience altered states of consciousness and assimilate higher forms of energy without side effects.

 What Is Hindu Meditation? Overview & Styles of Yoga

Hindu meditation is also known as yoga. While many people practice yoga without practicing Hinduism, yoga is rooted in the religion. There are two styles of yoga, hatha yoga and kriya yoga—one focuses on the physical and one focuses on breathing and energy.

Continue reading to learn about the Hindu meditation practice of yoga.

Hindu Meditation and Yoga

What is Hindu meditation—also referred to as yoga? Yoga translates as “union”: Its purpose is to unite your consciousness with God. This sense of connection can help alleviate feelings of depression, anxiety, and loneliness. But, even if you’re not Hindu (or not religious at all), practicing yoga can build physical strength, reduce stress, and improve your ability to focus.

Background: Hindu Beliefs

In Autobiography of a Yogi, Paramahansa Yogananda—a famous yoga practitioner and teacher—briefly explains yoga’s core practices. These include physical, mental, and behavioral disciplines collectively called the Eightfold Path of Yoga (sometimes called the Eight Limbs of Yoga). Note that while one of the steps of the Eightfold Path is itself meditation, the other practices can help you meditate more effectively.

1.            Yama: behaviors to avoid. The five Yamas are violence (in action, speech, and thought), lying, stealing, sex, and greed. These are selfish behaviors that cause you to focus on yourself instead of God, and therefore block you from reaching enlightenment.

2.            Niyama: good deeds, or duties to observe. The five Niyamas are cleanliness, contentment, discipline, learning, and devotion to God. These practices create a healthy physical and mental environment, allowing you to more effectively seek God.

3.            Asana: posture. Holding yourself in a stable and comfortable position allows for extended meditation. This helps you to build physical strength and discipline, thereby gaining better control over your own body.

4.            Pranayama: breathing exercises. Controlling your breathing helps you to strengthen your discipline and deepen your meditation.

5.            Pratyahara: inward focus. This means detaching your senses from the outside world. Directing all your attention to your own thoughts and moment-to-moment experiences helps you to build mindfulness and gain a greater understanding of yourself.

6.            Dharana: concentration. This involves focusing on a single thought for extended periods of time, which helps you build mental strength and discipline.

7.            Dhyana: meditation. This is a state of calm and focus that you can achieve by practicing Dharana.

8.            Samadhi: expanded consciousness. This is an all-seeing, all-knowing state of bliss achieved by temporarily joining your consciousness to God. Yogis like Yogananda say that samadhi requires years of intense, dedicated training to achieve.

Styles of Yoga

In this section, we’ll discuss two styles of yoga: hatha yoga, which emphasizes physical exercises (asana), and kriya yoga, which focuses on breathing exercises and controlling your life energy (pranayama).

Hatha Yoga

Hatha yoga is what most Westerners imagine when they think of yoga: a form of exercise that trains flexibility and balance. While most forms of meditation are about mastering your mind, hatha yoga focuses on helping you master your body by building up physical strength and control.

This is probably the easiest type of meditation to find a teacher for—odds are there’s a gym or yoga studio near you where you can take classes in hatha yoga. Taking a class will also give you a fixed schedule for practicing your yoga, which can help you work it into an already-busy lifestyle.

Hatha yoga can benefit anyone who’s physically able to do it, but psychiatrist Bessel van der Kolk (The Body Keeps the Score) says it’s especially helpful for trauma survivors for several reasons. First, yoga’s inherent focus on the breath—moving with each inhale and exhale, noticing whether your breath is fast or slow, and counting breaths in certain poses—helps control your heart rate, which in turn helps you to stay calm and stave off anxiety attacks.

Second, yoga teaches you to listen and respond to your body, ultimately helping you to be more connected to and comfortable in it. You need to feel connected to your body to have a sense of self; if you can’t understand what your body is telling you (for example, are you hungry, or are you anxious?), then you can’t identify how you feel or what you need, and you won’t be able to properly take care of yourself. Feeling safe in your body also helps you articulate your emotions and even traumatic memories that were previously overwhelming.

Third, yoga teaches you to notice the emotions connected to certa

in physical sensations; this is especially critical for trauma sufferers, because certain physical sensations and poses can trigger flashbacks. (For example, many sexual assault survivors panic in poses that have them lying on their backs with their feet up in the air.) As long as you approach yoga at a slow pace and avoid becoming overwhelmed, the practice can help you work through those intense emotions.

 Hindu Meditation 6 Different Type & Advantage

Hindu Meditation helps you relax in a stressful lifestyle. Meditation allows us to raise awareness when our senses often become sluggish. Research suggests that meditation can temporarily relieve stress. Due to its relaxing and soothing benefits, experts recommend a healthy and active life for meditation.

Do you know that there are many types of Hindu Meditation and each type is meant to target different parts of the body? Spiritual gurus and mental health experts have developed many types of Hindu meditation which shows that meditation is suited to people of every personality and lifestyle and can be practiced by everyone.

For those who do meditation, its practice provides an opportunity to improve physical health as well as emotional health. Here we are giving some types of meditation, from which you can choose which is best for you: –

What Is Hindu Meditation?

Hindu Meditation is a mental exercise involving relaxation, focus, and awareness. It is an exercise for the mind just as physical exercise works for the body. This practice is usually performed in a seated position in person and with eyes closed.

Meditation is a kind of practice where a person focuses on a particular idea, object, or any activity using a special technique, for instance, mindfulness meditation, to increase awareness and focus. Its practice makes us mentally clear as well as provides stability and peace emotionally.

What Is Buddhist Meditation?

Buddhist meditation technique is firmly connected with religion and reasoning. In Buddhism, it is known as Bhavana which implies improvement, and Jhana or dhyana meaning mental preparation bringing about a quiet and iridescent psyche.

The Buddhist act of meditation is a piece of anticipating freedom, arousing, and nirvana. Buddha meditation includes different strategies like Shamatha (care) which centers around the improvement of quiet, clearness, and poise inside an individual, metta or cherishing thoughtfulness, and insightful meditation centers around pensive habits.

Buddha meditation standards have been rehearsed by individuals for quite a long time to influence commonplace and common advantages. They assist one with creating fixation, lucidity, passionate inspiration, and smoothness by unequivocally checking out things.

As indicated by Gautam Buddha, Buddha meditation has the nature of quietness and serenity that assists with making and concentrating any brain and gives an understanding of the world, it permits opinions like matter, insight, and cognizance.

Differences Between Hindu And Buddhist Meditation

The strategies of meditation as portrayed in Hindu texts are undeniably challenging and it requires a very long time to dominate even a portion of the lower-level meditation methods in the progressive system of procedures and importance.

There are references in old Indian and Chinese texts of Hindu priests accomplishing baffling forces like flying, breaking objects by taking a gander at them, and preferences. Buddha meditation strategies, then again, are a lot less difficult, however old Buddhist priests are said to have utilized meditation to work on battling procedures.

             The meditation was not established y a solitary individual Buddha meditation was established especially by Gautam Buddha.

             The adherents of Hindu meditation significantly dwell in India while the devotees of Buddhist meditation are found in East and Southeast Asia.

             The meditation principally centers around strict conviction through Buddha meditation centers around the moral conduct of an individual.

             In meditation, they accept and love numerous symbols yet in Buddhist intercession, they put stock in the possibility of god yet they don’t typically follow it.

             The meditation centers around profound belief systems while Buddha meditation centers around the significant pieces of intercession.

             The methods of Hindu meditation are very troublesome and they require a long time to dominate while on account of Buddhist intercession, the procedures are similarly simpler and they don’t take a lot of training to be dominated.

Types of Hindu Meditation:

Hindu Meditation is necessary to eliminate every negative thought from the mind permanently as well as to adopt that whole and perfection. So, let’s now check out the different types of this Meditation in the article below…

1. Transcendental Meditation (TM):

Transcendental Meditation (TM) is a procedure for abstaining from diverting considerations and advancing a condition of loosened-up mindfulness. The late Maharishi Mahesh Yogi got Transcendental Meditation (TM) from the old Vedic custom of India.

While practicing meditation, the individual rehearsing TM sits in an agreeable situation with eyes shut and quietly rehashes a mantra. A mantra is a word or sound from the Vedic convention that is utilized to center your focus.

As indicated by allies of TM, while pondering, the common reasoning cycle is “rose above.” It’s supplanted by a condition of unadulterated awareness. In this expression, the meditator accomplishes wonderful quietness, rest, strength, request, and total nonattendance of mental limits.

2. Spiritual Meditation:

Popular, spiritual meditation in Hindu and Christianity helps you form a deeper connection with your God. To practice this meditation, you have to make sure that you sit in silence and concentrate on your breath. While meditating, each of your thoughts should be centered on your breath.

3. Chakra Meditation:

There are 7 chakras in a person’s body, to do Chakras Meditation means to meditate on those chakras. These chakras are also considered to be the center of energy of the body. To do this, you also have to close your eyes and chant mantras (Lama, Ram, Yama, Hum, etc.). Most of the meditation has to focus on the heart chakra.

4. Kundalini Yoga:

Kundalini yoga or Kundalini meditation is a type of meditation in which you are physically active. It included taking numerous breaths together with chanting mantras and taking deep breaths. For this, you usually need to take a class or you can learn from an instructor. However, you can also learn asanas and mantras at home.

This meditation is considered to be one of the most difficult meditations. In this, a person has to awaken his Kundalini energy, which is located in the backbone of a human being. While doing this, the man slowly opens all the spiritual centers or doors of his body and one day attains salvation. There are some dangers of doing this meditation, so you need a proper teacher to do it.

5. Mantra Meditation:

Mantra is a Sanskrit word consisting of two words “mana” which means “brain” or “think” and “Tra” which means “to protect” or “to free from”. Therefore mantra means to free your mind or to free thinking. The practice of mantra meditation takes your mind away from negative thoughts and leads it to positivity.

In this meditation, a person has to close his eyes and chant 4 mantras, and meditate on the same. Because the sky is an element of our body, then this mantra is transmitted like the sky inside the person and purifies our mind.

As long as our mind keeps us tied, we can speak this sound but we cannot hear it, but when a clear resonance of this sound starts to be heard from inside you, then it should be understood that your mind has been cleared. Apart from the 7 mantras, you can also use the mantras So-4, Om Namah Shivaya, Ram, Yama, etc.

6. Tantra Meditation:

In this, a person has to keep his mind confined and concentrate on his inner spirituality. In this, the concentration of the person is most important. In this, a person closes his eyes and meditates on the sound emanating from his heart chakra. The person analyzes both pain and pleasure in it.

Advantages Of Hindu Meditation:

After knowing the method of meditation, in this article, you will know what is the benefit of Hindu meditation.

Just as meditation is special, the benefits from it are also special. We can divide the benefits of Hindu Meditation into different lists.

Mental Benefits:

Hindu Meditation builds the centralization of the cerebrum, which makes it propensity to tune in to everything cautiously and to do everything cautiously. This expands memory power with the goal that you can recall something for quite a while. A wide range of headaches can be restored with care.

By refining contemplations and direct, the odds of getting any kind of psychological sickness are diminished. Clairvoyant analyses, for example, supernatural power and clairvoyance should be possible utilizing painstakingly expanded fixation. With the expansion of mental force, work should be possible to pull in others and have an effect.

Subliminal therapy relies altogether upon the expanded labor by meditation, yet these forces should just be utilized for the foundation of smart thoughts and the disposal of thoughts.

Worldly Benefits:

Material increases mean advantages identified with society, family, abundance, and achievement. All the advantages of Hindu meditation referenced above are identified with actual advantages without a doubt.

Along these lines, if everybody ruminates, everybody’s musings will be unadulterated, which will set up harmony in the home, family, society, and nation.

Your character will grow so that individuals will like you more. The odds of accomplishment will increment. Generally speaking, it very well may be said that the manifestation of paradise on earth is conceivable by meditation.

Spiritual Benefits:

Dhyana yoga is a workmanship that has numerous advantages. Of which profound advantage is one. Constant meditation causes the development of sattvic components in people. Therefore, the contemplations of deeds, outrage, covetousness, scorn, viciousness, malevolence, envy, and so forth are continually survived.

This keeps your brain quiet and glad. By pondering God, one creates divine characteristics that are useful in character improvement alley. Meditation fortifies self-discipline and lifts certainty.

The meditator can never be edgy and baffled since he confides in God. With meditation, there is a persistent development of the imperative component, because of which the impact of each feeling of person expands complex.

There is a splendid sparkle on the eyes and face. There is constancy in contemplations. Such an entrancing force creates in discourse and vision that nobody can maintain a strategic distance from the expressions of a yogi.

What to state more! At the point when a yogi arrives at a higher condition of yoga, he gets different sorts of siddhis as a blessing. This is the profound advantage of meditation.

Physical Benefits of Meditation:

Meditation is a finished mental cycle, however, individuals who are all around experienced in meditation can take any sort of advantage from meditation.

Most importantly, you need to rehearse asana and pranayama in the arrangements of meditation, which has physical and mental advantages.

At the point when meditation is polished well, individuals can control the essential energy (called qi gong in China), with the goal that the harmed portions of the body can be fixed. This life power has so much force that an individual can make his body as solid as a stone.

Can run consistently without getting worn out, work day and night without getting drained, may stay without eating for a few days, and can bear each blow. Its advantages are what I have encountered in my life. Aside from this, numerous advantages are depicted in the Yoga Shastras.

Meditation for Students:

Youth and understudies are the experts of our nation. In any case, tragically the impersonation of unfamiliar progress and culture is profoundly, genuinely, and intellectually pointless. Hindu Meditation for beginners is generally useful for understudies. The explanation – is that waste is least in the psyches of the understudies.

Be that as it may, because of social destinations and TV these days more trash is spreading. In any case, and still, after all that, it isn’t found in youngsters up to the age of 14 years. Also, besides, innovativeness is most elevated among adolescents.

On the off chance that this innovativeness gets the correct heading, at that point the adolescent can contribute altogether to the improvement of the nation by taking out all the difficulties and obstructions like air. Some adolescents are likewise giving.

The Right Time To Meditate:

Hindu Meditation can be practiced at any time of the day, whenever you are comfortable doing it and the environment around you is appropriate for focusing. However, it is considered best to practice Hindu meditation when the sun rises in the morning. It opens your senses, activates the mind, and calms the mind. Apart from this, you can practice meditation in the evening.

Practices That Will Change Your Life Instantly

The following are six Buddhist rules that when drilled consistently will transform you!

Embrace Change In Life

This truism truly is valid: the one steady known to mankind is evolving. What is genuine is the current second, the current that is a result of the past, or an aftereffect of the past causes and activities. Due to obliviousness, a common psyche considers them all to be important for one nonstop reality. Be that as it may, in truth, they are not. In the event that you reconcile with this basic truth, your life will be a lot simpler.

Help Other People In Need

Helping other people can have a significant effect on your joy and on others’ lives. On the off chance that you notice somebody needs assistance, rush to hop in. Attempt to ease enduring any place you see it, and consider others’ points of view profoundly.

It very well may be hard, yet notice your responses with certifiable interest and non-connection. You will discover your empathy and persistence will normally jump up all of a sudden. Your heart will start to direct your choices.

Regardless of whether your situation is expressly difficult (perhaps annoying), it isn’t generally important to comprehend the starting points of an encounter or a response to come to harmony with it. Simply make a stride back and turn out to be all the more an observer. You’ll see your whole manner of thinking will change.

Pause for a Minute

Your words affect your life and others. You ought to inquire as to whether your words cultivate cherishing or being hurt. This is so significant. Allow your psyche to settle before you start work, school, or strolling into your home.

This will establish an alternate vibe that can have a significant effect. Pay attention to the individuals you experience. In the event that we converse with others and tune in, we make the chance of common compassion, comprehension, and resistance.

Adjust to Wisdom

Shrewdness is viewed as one of the main viewpoints to creating. It’s practically similarly as significant as sympathy, really. Why Because life is a colossal dark cloud. It’s not dark or white. It’s a major wreck that includes convoluted dynamics, regularly picking things that are actually the lesser of two wrongs. Be available to what exactly emerges in each second.

The brain can concentrate in such countless ways: past, present, future, unique thoughts, or logical critical thinking, to give some examples. All types of thought play a valuable part. Attempt to focus on attention the current second. Indeed, in the event that you delayed down your brain, intelligence will normally jump up, actually like sympathy.

Burn-through Mindfully

Be appreciative of the sustenance great food gives, and know about what you put into your body. Mull over everything before you get it. Is it truly something you need, or simply a transient longing? Focus on the impacts of negative media you burn through.

Ask yourself: is it assisting you with developing or learning, or is it a type of interruption? Does it detract from your care, and is it even awesome to do as such? These are truly significant little choices that sway us more than we understand.

Find Gratitude

One of the most remarkable things we can do is practice appreciation. This reliably prompts an immediate encounter of being associated with your life and is associated with a bigger setting wherein your own story is unfurling.

Certain individuals get confounded… they think rehearsing appreciation is a forswearing of life’s challenges. Clearly, we live in attempting times, and most likely you’ve encountered difficulties and frustrations.

Appreciation liberates you from being lost or related to one or the other negative or positive parts of life; permitting you to just meet circumstances with careful mindfulness. Celebrate in the favorable luck of others and your own joy duplicates – it’s the best remedy for envy.


Intervention is a procedure that is rehearsed worldwide by individuals for the resting of the brain and smoothness. With the assistance of meditation, the brain gets clear, loose, and internally engaged. Despite the fact that the course of intercession may sound comparable, however, it is very troublesome and requires normal practice to dominate.

Meditation can be additionally arranged under two kinds depending on where they have begun in particular Hindu meditation and Buddha meditation.

They can be additionally separated dependent on the author, devotee, center, love, belief system, and strategy.

Hindu meditation is fundamentally connected with a profound philosophy more than religion. Three parts of humankind are drawn nearer specifically physical, mental, and otherworldly.

They accept that the outrageous phase of intervention is connecting with the all-powerful or Paramatma. The procedures of Hindu intervention are very troublesome and it requires a long time to dominate them.

Buddhist folklore then again centers more around moral conduct. They put stock in the idea of God yet don’t follow it. They consider meditation as a strict practice and the fundamental intention is to arrive at nirvana.

It is viewed that the strategies and methods of Buddha meditation are relatively simpler and they don’t take a lot of training to dominate them.

Q. Is meditation a Hindu or Buddhist?

A. In Hinduism, the philosophy behind meditation practice is more divine than religious conviction. The determinations of meditation practice in Hinduism are wide-ranging, like mental, spiritual, and physical enhancement, as well as control of the mind.

On the other hand, Buddhist meditation doesn’t believe in the Almighty God but ponders meditation practice e as an essential part of their religion.

Q. What is Tantra meditation?

A. At its core, Tantra meditation is a practice that comes with the breath, movement, sound, and meditation, to support the Chakra energy arrangement within your body to open all Chakras. This opening lets dormant energy, recognized as Kundalini, rise from the pelvis, through the spine.

7 Types of Meditation

Meditation is the practice of focusing one’s mind for a period of time, noticing but not engaging with thoughts. This can be done in silence or with the help of chanting, and is done for a number of reasons, ranging from religious or spiritual purposes to a method for evoking relaxation.

In our modern, hectic world, meditation has gained traction in recent years as a way to manage stress. Scientific evidence has also emerged that shows meditation can be a helpful tool in fighting chronic illnesses, including depression, heart disease, and chronic pain.

There are many different forms of this ancient practice.

If you’re interested in trying meditation, but do not know where to start, here’s a list of seven types of meditation practice:

1. Mindfulness Meditation

Mindfulness meditation is the process of being fully present with your awareness. Being mindful means being aware of where we are and what we’re doing, and not being overly reactive to what’s going on around us.

Mindful meditation can be done anywhere. Some people prefer to sit in a quiet place, close their eyes, and focus on their breathing. But you can choose to be mindful at any point of the day, including while you’re commuting to work or doing chores.

When practicing mindfulness meditation, you observe your thoughts and emotions but let them pass without judgement.

2. Transcendental Meditation

Transcendental meditation may sound lofty, but it’s actually a basic technique: You choose a mantra — a word, a phrase, or a sound — and repeat it for 20 minutes twice a day. It’s best to do this seated, with your eyes closed.

Meditating this way helps your body and mind to fully relax, so that you can feel a sense of peace and calm

3. Guided Meditation

Guided meditation, which is sometimes also called guided imagery or visualization, is a method of meditation in which you form mental pictures or situations that you find relaxing.

This process is typically led by a guide or teacher, hence “guided.” It’s often suggested to use as many senses as possible, such as smell, sounds, and textures, to evoke calmness in your relaxing space

4. Vipassana Meditation (Sayagyi U Ba Khin Tradition)

An ancient Indian form of meditation, vipassana means to see things as they really are. It dates back more than 2,500 years and is credited for the mindfulness meditation movement in the United States.

Vipassana meditation aims for self-transformation through self-observation. By focusing your attention on physical sensations in the body, you establish a deep connection between mind and body. This interconnectedness, teachers of the practice say, helps balance your mind and promotes love and compassion.

Traditionally, vipassana is taught during a 10-day course, during which students must abstain from a number of things, including intoxicants and sexual activity

5. Loving Kindness Meditation (Metta Meditation)

Metta meditation, also called loving kindness meditation, is the practice of directing well-wishes toward others. Practitioners recite specific words and phrases meant to evoke warm-hearted feelings. This is also commonly found in mindfulness and vipassana meditation.

It’s typically practiced while sitting in a comfortable, relaxed position. After a few deep breaths, you repeat words slowly and steadily. These could include: “May I be happy. May I be well. May I be safe. May I be peaceful and at ease.”

After a period of directing this loving kindness toward yourself, you may begin to picture a family member or friend who has helped you and repeat the mantra again, this time replacing “I” with “you.”

As you continue the meditation, you can bring other members of your family, friends, neighbors, or people in your life to mind. Practitioners are also encouraged to visualize people they have difficulty with.

Finally, you end the meditation with the universal mantra: “May all beings everywhere be happy.

6. Chakra Meditation

Chakra is an ancient Sanskrit word that translates to “wheel,” and can be traced back to India. Chakras refer to the centers of energy and spiritual power in the body. There are thought to be seven chakras. Each chakra is located at a different part of the body along the spine, and each has a corresponding color.

Chakra meditation is made up of relaxation techniques focused on bringing balance and well-being to the chakras. Some of these techniques include visually picturing each chakra in the body and its corresponding color. Some people may choose to light incense or use crystals, color coded for each chakra to help them concentrate during the meditation.

7. Yoga Meditation

The practice of yoga dates back to ancient India. There are a wide variety of classes and styles of yoga, but they all involve performing a series of postures and controlled breathing exercises meant to promote flexibility and calm the mind.

The poses require balance and concentration and practitioners are encouraged to focus less on distractions and stay more in the moment. (5)

Which style of meditation you decide to try depends on a number of factors. If you have a health condition and are new to yoga, speak to your doctor about which style may be right for you.

 Indian Origins Of Mindfulness Meditation

Origins of Mindfulness: Religion, Philosophy, or Psychology?

Mindfulness is seen to have its roots in ancient Eastern, primarily Buddhist, traditions.

However, there are enough references in Hindu scriptures that emphasize on meditation, silence and acceptance, which is what mindfulness is about. We have Upanishads describing meditations, some including a mantra or chant, others not including a chant.

No matter where you look, how you approach meditation or what name you give this practice of being calm and present, the essence seems too similar to even bother with the differences.

Upanishads and Indian Hindu Traditions

These traditions talk of the misidentification with the self instead of a sense of oneness with the larger force of God as the reason for suffering. Consequently they emphasize on silent and meditative practices in order to deepen connection with the whole, to lose the ego and to let the mind get calm so that it can reflect the beauty and wholeness of God. God is mainly seen as the whole of which everything is part (seen as Satchitananda – ever existing, ever conscious, ever new bliss)

The Four Yogas

[NOTE:  What follows is a decent summary of the basic approaches of the four classical types of yoga (bhakti, jnana, karma and raja).  It is just a summary, and presents the material from a modern point-of-view, rather than from a classical one.  Still, it will serve to introduce the various paths.  Clicking on the link above will take you to The Vedanta Society where you will find other on-line materials.  — W. Weinstein]

Meaning of Yoga

While in recent years the word “yoga” has been heard more in gyms than in religious discourse, “yoga” in its original sense has little to do with exercise. “Yoga” comes from the Sanskrit verb “yuj,” to yoke or unite. The goal of yoga is to unite oneself with God; the practice of yoga is the path we take to accomplish this.

Spiritual aspirants can be broadly classified into four psychological types: the predominantly emotional, the predominantly intellectual, the physically active, and the meditative. There are four primary yogas designated to “fit” each psychological type.

We should state from the beginning that these categories are not airtight compartments. Indeed, it would be psychologically disastrous for anyone to be completely emotional, completely intellectual, completely active or completely meditative. Each yoga blends into the next; each yoga balances and strengthens the others.

The Path of Love: Bhakti Yoga

For those more emotional than intellectual, bhakti yoga is recommended. Bhakti yoga is the path of devotion, the method of attaining God through love and the loving recollection of God. Most religions emphasize this spiritual path because it is the most natural. As with other yogas, the goal of the bhakta, the devotee of God, is to attain God-realization–oneness with the Divine. The bhakta attains this through the force of love, that most powerful and irresistible of emotions.

Love is accessible to everyone: we all love someone or something, frequently with great intensity. Love makes us forget ourselves, our whole attention being devoted to the object of our adoration. The ego loosens its grip as we think of our beloved’s welfare more than our own. Love gives us concentration: even against our will, we constantly remember the object of our love. In an easy and totally painless way, love creates the preconditions necessary for a fruitful spiritual life.

Vedanta therefore says, Don’t squander the power of love. Use this powerful force for God-realization. We must remember that when we love another we are really responding–though unconsciously–to the divinity within him or her. As we read in the Upanishads, “It is not for the sake of the husband that the husband is dear, but for the sake of the Self. It is not for the sake of the wife that the wife is dear, but for the sake of the Self.” Our love for others becomes unselfish and motiveless when we are able to encounter divinity in them.

Unfortunately, we usually misplace our love. We project our vision of what’s true, perfect, and beautiful and superimpose it upon whomever or whatever we love. It is God alone, however, who is True, Perfect, and Beautiful. Vedanta therefore says: Put the emphasis back where it belongs–on the divine Self within each person that we encounter. That is the real object of our love.

Rather than obsessing on a limited human being, we should think of God with a longing heart. Many spiritual teachers have recommended adopting a particular devotional attitude towards God: thinking of God as our Master or Father or Mother or Friend or Child or Beloved. The determining factor here is, Which attitude feels the most natural to me and which attitude brings me closest to God?

Jesus looked upon God as his Father in Heaven. Ramakrishna worshipped God as Mother. Many great saints have attained perfection through worshipping God as the baby Jesus or the baby Krishna. Many have attained perfection through worshipping Christ as the bridegroom or Krishna as the beloved. Others have attained perfection through worshipping God as their master or friend.

The point to remember is that God is our own, the nearest of the nearest and dearest of the dearest. The more our minds are absorbed in thoughts of Him–or Her as the case may be–the closer we shall be to attaining the goal of human life, God-realization.

Many people are drawn to worshipping God through love and devotion. Yet other spiritual aspirants are more motivated by reason than by love; for them, bhakti yoga is barking up the wrong spiritual tree. Those who are endowed with a powerful and discriminating intellect may be better suited for the path of jnana yoga, striving for perfection through the power of reason.

The Path of Knowledge: Jnana Yoga

Jnana yoga is the yoga of knowledge–not knowledge in the intellectual sense–but the knowledge of Brahman and Atman and the realization of their unity. Where the devotee of God follows the promptings of the heart, the jnani uses the powers of the mind to discriminate between the real and the unreal, the permanent and the transitory.

Jnanis, followers of nondualistic or advaita Vedanta, can also be called monists for they affirm the sole reality of Brahman. Of course, all followers of Vedanta are monists: all Vedantins affirm the sole reality of Brahman. The distinction here is in spiritual practice: while all Vedantins are philosophically monistic, in practice those who are devotees of God prefer to think of God as distinct from themselves in order to enjoy the sweetness of a relationship. Jnanis, by contrast, know that all duality is ignorance. There is no need to look outside ourselves for divinity: we ourselves already are divine.

What is it that prevents us from knowing our real nature and the nature of the world around us? The veil of maya. Jnana yoga is the process of directly rending that veil, tearing it through a two-pronged approach.

An Unreal Universe

The first part of the approach is negative, the process of neti, neti–not this, not this. Whatever is unreal–that is, impermanent, imperfect, subject to change–is rejected. The second part is positive: whatever is understood to be perfect, eternal, unchanging–is accepted as real in the highest sense.

Are we saying that the universe that we apprehend is unreal? Yes and no. In the absolute sense, it is unreal. The universe and our perception of it have only a conditional reality, not an ultimate one. Under certain conditions, a coiled rope may be mistaken for a snake. So, in a similar manner: the rope, i.e., Brahman, is perceived to be the snake, i.e., the universe as we perceive it. While we are seeing the snake as a snake, it has a conditional reality. Our hearts palpitate as we react to our perception. When we see the “snake” for what it is, we laugh at our delusion.

Similarly, whatever we take in through our senses, our minds, our intellects, is inherently restricted by the very nature of our bodies and minds. Brahman is infinite; it cannot be restricted. Therefore this universe of change–of space, time, and causation–cannot be the infinite, all-pervading Brahman. Our minds are circumscribed by every possible condition; whatever the mind and intellect apprehend cannot be the infinite fullness of Brahman. Brahman must be beyond what the normal mind can comprehend; as the Upanishads declare, Brahman is “beyond the reach of speech and mind.”

Yet what we perceive can be no other than Brahman. Brahman is infinite, all-pervading, and eternal. There cannot be two infinites; what we see at all times can only be Brahman; any limitation is only our own misperception. Jnanis forcefully remove this misperception through the negative process of discrimination between the real and the unreal and through the positive approach of Self-affirmation.


In Self-affirmation we continually affirm what is real about ourselves: we are not limited to a small physical body; we are not limited by our individual minds. We are Spirit. We were never born; we will never die. We are pure, perfect, eternal and free. That is the greatest truth of our being.

The philosophy behind Self-affirmation is simple: as you think, so you become. We have programmed ourselves for thousands of lifetimes to think of ourselves as limited, puny, weak, and helpless. What a horrible, dreadful lie this is and how incredibly self-destructive! It is the worst poison we can ingest. If we think of ourselves as weak, we shall act accordingly. If we think of ourselves as helpless sinners, we will, without a doubt, act accordingly. If we think of ourselves as Spirit–pure, perfect, free–we will also act accordingly.

As we have drummed the wrong thoughts into our minds again and again to create the wrong impressions, so we must reverse the process by drumming into our brains the right thoughts–thoughts of purity, thoughts of strength, thoughts of truth. As the Ashtavakra Samhita, a classic Advaita text, declares: “I am spotless, tranquil, pure consciousness, and beyond nature. All this time I have been duped by illusion.”

Jnana yoga uses our considerable mental powers to end the duping process, to know that we are even now–and have always been–free, perfect, infinite, and immortal. Realizing that, we will also recognize in others the same divinity, the same purity and perfection. No longer confined to the painful limitations of “I” and “mine,” we will see the one Brahman everywhere and in everything.

The Path of Work: Karma Yoga

Karma yoga is the yoga of action or work; specifically, karma yoga is the path of dedicated work: renouncing the results of our actions as a spiritual offering rather than hoarding the results for ourselves.

Karma is both action and the result of action. What we experience today is the result of our karma–both good and bad–created by our previous actions. This chain of cause and effect that we ourselves have created can be snapped by karma yoga: fighting fire with fire, we use the sword of karma yoga to stop the chain reaction of cause and effect. By disengaging the ego from the work process, by offering the results up to a higher power–whether a personal God or to the Self within–we stop the whole snowballing process.

Whether we realize it or not, all of us perform actions all the time since even sitting and thinking is action. Since action is inevitable, an integral part of being alive, we need to reorient it into a path to God-realization. As we read in the Bhagavad-Gita, one of Hinduism’s most sacred scriptures:

Whatever your action, food or worship, whatever the gift that you give to another,

Whatever you vow to the work of the spirit, lay these also as offerings before Me.

All of us tend to work with expectations in mind: we work hard in our jobs to get respect and appreciation from our colleagues and promotions from the boss. We clean our yards and make them lovely with the hope that our neighbors will be appreciative if not downright envious. We work hard in school to get good grades, anticipating that this will bring us a fine future. We cook a splendid meal with the expectation that it will be received with plaudits and praise. We dress nicely in anticipation of someone’s appreciation. So much of our lives is run simply in expectation of future results that we do it automatically, unconsciously.

This, however, is a perilous pattern. From a spiritual viewpoint, all these expectations and anticipations are Trojan horses that will bring us misery either sooner or later. Misery is inevitable because our expectations and desires are unending and unappeasable. We will live from disappointment to disappointment because our motivation is to gratify and enlarge the ego; instead of breaking the bonds of karma, we are forging fresh chains.

No matter whether we are devotional, intellectual or meditative by temperament, karma yoga can easily be practiced in tandem with the other spiritual paths. Even those who lead a predominantly meditative life benefit from karma yoga, for thoughts can produce bonds just as effectively as physical actions.

Just as devotees offer flowers and incense in their loving worship of God, so can actions and thoughts be offered as divine worship. Knowing that the Lord exists in the hearts of all creatures, devotees can and should worship God by serving all beings as his living manifestations. To paraphrase Jesus Christ: What we do for the least of our brothers and sisters, we do for the Lord himself. “A yogi,” says the Bhagavad-Gita, “sees Me in all things, and all things within Me.” The highest of all yogis, the Gita continues, is one “who burns with the bliss and suffers the sorrow of every creature” within his or her own heart.

Jnanis take a different but equally effective tack. They know that although the body or the mind performs action, in reality they do no work at all. In the midst of intense activity, they rest in the deep stillness of the Atman. Maintaining the attitude of a witness, jnanis continually remember that they are not the body, not the mind. They know the Atman is not subject to fatigue or anxiety or excitement; pure, perfect and free, the Atman has no struggle to engage in, no goal to attain.

The point of all the yogas is to spiritualize our entire life instead of compartmentalizing our days into “secular” and “spiritual” zones. Karma yoga is particularly effective at this since it won’t allow us to use activity as an escape. By insisting that life itself can be holy, karma yoga gives us the tools of everyday life to cut our way to freedom. To quote again the Bhagavad Gita regarding karma yoga:

Thus you will free yourself from both the good and the evil effects of your actions.

Offer up everything to Me. If your heart is united with Me,

You will be set free from karma even in this life, and come to Me at the last.

The Path of Meditation: Raja Yoga

Raja yoga, is the royal path of meditation. As a king maintains control over his kingdom, so can we maintain control over our own “kingdom”–the vast territory of the mind. In raja yoga we use our mental powers to realize the Atman through the process of psychological control.

The basic premise of raja yoga is that our perception of the divine Self is obscured by the disturbances of the mind. If the mind can be made still and pure, the Self will automatically, instantaneously, shine forth. Says the Bhagavad Gita:

When, through the practice of yoga, the mind ceases its restless movements,

And becomes still, the aspirant realizes the Atman.

If we can imagine a lake that is whipped by waves, fouled by pollution, muddied by tourists and made turbulent by speedboats, we’ll get a fair assessment of the mind’s usual state.

Should anyone doubt this assertion, let the intrepid soul try to sit quietly for a few minutes and meditate upon the Atman. What happens? A thousand different thoughts fly at us, all leading the mind outward. The fly buzzing around suddenly becomes very important. So does the thought of dinner. We now remember where we left the keys. The argument we had yesterday becomes even more vivid and powerful; so does the perfect retort that we’ve cleverly composed during our “meditation.” The minute we stop thinking one thought, another jumps in with equal force. Were it not so dismaying, it would be funny.

Most of the time we remain unaware of the mind’s erratic movements because we are habituated to giving our minds free reign: we’ve never seriously attempted to observe, let alone train the mind. Like parents whose indiscipline has created children that everyone dreads, our lack of mental discipline has created the turbulent, ill-behaved minds that have given us endless difficulty. Without psychological discipline, the mind becomes the mental equivalent of the house ape. And all of us, sadly enough, have suffered mental agony because of it.

Mastering the Mind

While we may have grown accustomed to living with an uncontrolled mind, we should never assume that it’s an acceptable, if not inevitable, state of affairs. Vedanta says that we can master the mind and, through repeated practice, we can make the mind our servant rather than being its victim. The mind, when trained, is our truest friend; when left untrained and reckless, it’s an enemy that won’t leave the premises.

Now, instead of the polluted lake we previously envisioned, think of a beautiful, clear lake. No waves, no pollution, no tourists, no speedboats. It’s clear as glass: calm, quiet, tranquil. Looking down through the pure water, you can clearly see the bottom of the lake. The bottom of the lake, metaphorically speaking, is the Atman residing deep within our hearts. When the mind is pure and calm, the Self is no longer hidden from view. And, Vedanta says, that mind can be yours. How? To again quote the Bhagavad Gita:

Patiently, little by little, spiritual aspirants must free themselves from all mental distractions,

With the aid of the intelligent will. They must fix their minds upon the Atman,

And never think of anything else. No matter where the restless and unquiet mind wanders,

It must be drawn back and made to submit to the Atman alone.

The mind is cleansed and made tranquil through the repeated practice of meditation and through the practice of moral virtues.

Popular wisdom aside, there is no way to practice meditation without practicing moral virtues in tandem. To try to do otherwise is as effective as sailing the ocean with a leaky boat.

For such a Herculean task as realizing the Atman, all areas of the mind must be fully engaged. We cannot compartmentalize our life and assume that we can have both a “secular” area (in which we can live as we please) and a “spiritual” area. Just as we can’t cross the ocean in a leaky boat, so we can’t cross the ocean with two legs in two different boats. We must fully integrate all aspects of life and direct our energies towards the one great goal.

This doesn’t mean that in order to realize God a person must totally renounce the world and live in a cave, monastery or convent. What it does mean is that all aspects of our life must be spiritualized so that they can be directed towards attaining the goal of God-realization.

Because raja yoga is the path of meditation, it is–when practiced exclusively–generally followed by those who lead contemplative lives. Most of us will never fall into that category. Raja yoga is, however, an essential component of all other spiritual paths since meditation is involved in the loving recollection of God, mental discrimination, and is an essential balance to selfless action.

The Buddhist Traditions

Buddha sees attachment to self and the consequent creation of desire as the root cause of all suffering. The emphasis again is to lose the ego – to realize that the self is actually empty and to therefore free oneself of attachment and the delusion of a separate self. Buddha sees this as a way to end suffering. Meditation and mindfulness are practices that allow for the space to be created within in order to reach such a suffering-free stage.

However, in my study of philosophy and religions, I have seen that in some form or the other, all philosophies and traditions seem to converge. All have some practice or the other which involves quiet time and silence, trust in a larger universal force (which some call God, others call law of nature (dhamma), life force and so on) and involves concentration and focus within.

The Jewish Kabbalah tradition, the Sufi tradition of Islam and the apophatic prayer tradition of contemplation in Christianity – all have meditation, seclusion, surrender and silence as their basic tenets.

Gaining wisdom through meditation

Wisdom is no one philosophy’s prerogative. Wisdom is available to all of us equally and in fact it is free of any religious or cultural identity. However all religious philosophies and also teachers within each tradition have created what they feel works best, as a way to meditate.

I have serious respect for all these paths. And it doesn’t matter which one you follow, provided your intentions in following a path do not become corrupted by creating clinging or attachment to exclusively that path or by believing that other paths are false or inadequate.

Need for a secular form of practice and disenchantment with organized religion

Of late, a number of us seem to have become disenchanted with organized religion. Religion that says one size fits all. That says one practice is better than the other. I do not personally think it is a problem of any core religious philosophy but that of excessive identification with just one philosophy.

In such a time and space, I find the secular practice of mindfulness and meditation as a practice of deeply understanding oneself, of unparalleled use.

Psychology and Religion

In the earlier times, religions had to include everything that partly now falls under the purview of psychology. Religious philosophies deal with humans after all and therefore with the mind.

Psychology was needed as a separate science where religious protocols became intolerant of the shadow aspects of human beings, of impulses that were considered unholy, or vices that were considered sinful. To preserve their holiness, religions or rather religious followers had to start excluding what they called human shortcomings. While this discrimination could have helped to reinforce the more wholesome path; people who didn’t fall into the format felt lost and a sense of shame or non-belonging. Here is where psychology came to the rescue.

Often, today, the question is asked whether mindfulness meditation is a psychological practice, a philosophical one or a religious one. The difference is merely semantic. It is a practice to access the forever available wisdom that is within all of us and to create space within, so we can live our lives in a more fulfilled manner.

The role of the West in the spread of mindfulness

The secular practice of mindfulness, independent of religious or cultural contexts, was presented in its current form in the late 1970s. It was then that Jon Kabat-Zinn (also known as the founder of modern day mindfulness) launched Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program at the University of Massachusetts Medical School. He devised this 8 week program as a way of helping people to deal with situations ranging from general dissatisfaction that we all go through at some level or another to chronic bodily pain.

Various studies since then have documented the benefits of mindfulness to the body and mind, while the MBSR has inspired adaptations that are being employed by professionals across the globe.

There are various programs incorporating mindfulness that have been created. The programs frequently used by professionals include Mindfulness-based Stress Reduction (MBSR), Mindfulness-based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) for depression, Mindfulness-based Relapse Prevention (MBRP), Acceptance Commitment Therapy (ACT), and Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT).

There have been many neuroscience studies in the last decade emphasizing the positive role mindfulness plays in promoting good mental health.

While western scientific research has validated and opened up the practice of mindfulness to the entire world, the depth of concepts are still deeply embedded in eastern philosophy, which will be often referenced on this site.

Loving-Kindness Meditation: Cultivating Compassion

In our pursuit of inner peace and holistic well-being, we often stumble upon various practices that promise to transform our lives. One such practice, rooted in ancient wisdom, is Loving-Kindness Meditation. This unique form of meditation focuses on cultivating compassion towards ourselves and others, with the belief that it can bring profound benefits to our mind, body, and soul. Join us as we dive into the transformative power of Loving-Kindness Meditation and embark on a journey of cultivating compassion.

What is Loving-Kindness Meditation?


Loving-Kindness Meditation, also known as Metta Meditation, is a mindfulness practice that involves generating feelings of love, kindness, and compassion towards oneself and others. Rooted in ancient Buddhist teachings, this practice aims to cultivate a deep sense of connection, empathy, and understanding for all beings.


Loving-Kindness Meditation can be traced back to over 2,500 years ago in the Buddhist tradition. It is believed to have originated with the founder of Buddhism, Gautama Buddha, who taught this practice as a means to develop compassion and overcome negative mental states such as anger, resentment, and hostility.


Numerous scientific studies have explored the benefits of Loving-Kindness Meditation. This practice has been shown to have a wide range of positive effects on emotional well-being, physical health, and interpersonal relationships. By cultivating qualities such as love, kindness, and compassion, individuals may experience increased happiness, reduced stress and anxiety, improved immune function, and enhanced social connections.

How to Practice Loving-Kindness Meditation

Setting the intention

Before beginning the meditation, it is essential to set the intention to cultivate love and compassion towards oneself and others. This intention serves as a guiding principle throughout the practice and can be a powerful motivator to bring about positive transformations in one’s life.

Finding a comfortable posture

To practice Loving-Kindness Meditation, find a comfortable seated position. It can be on a cushion, a chair, or even on the floor. The key is to sit with an upright posture, relaxed but alert. This posture helps to create a sense of stability and presence during the meditation.

Focusing on the breath

Take a few deep breaths to ground yourself in the present moment. Then, gently bring your attention to the sensation of the breath flowing in and out of your body. Use the breath as an anchor to keep your mind focused and present.

Reciting loving-kindness phrases

The core of Loving-Kindness Meditation involves reciting specific phrases or mantras silently or aloud. These phrases are expressions of well-wishes and kindness towards oneself, loved ones, neutral individuals, and even difficult people. Examples of loving-kindness phrases include “May I be happy. May I be peaceful. May I be healthy. May I live with ease.”

Expanding the circle of compassion

After cultivating feelings of love and kindness towards oneself, the practice expands to include others. Gradually, extend these well-wishes to friends, family, strangers, and eventually to all beings. This process helps to develop empathy and a genuine sense of interconnectedness with others.

Scientific Research on Loving-Kindness Meditation

Effects on emotional well-being

Studies have found that Loving-Kindness Meditation can significantly increase positive emotions such as love, joy, and gratitude, while decreasing negative emotions like anger, anxiety, and depression. This practice has also been shown to enhance overall emotional resilience, allowing individuals to better cope with stress and life challenges.

Effects on physical health

The practice of Loving-Kindness Meditation has been associated with several physical health benefits. Research suggests that regular engagement in this meditation can lower blood pressure, reduce inflammation, boost immune system functioning, and improve overall cardiovascular health. These physiological changes may contribute to a decreased risk of developing chronic illnesses and promote longevity.

Effects on interpersonal relationships

Loving-Kindness Meditation has a profound impact on improving social connections and relationships. It enhances empathy, compassion, and prosocial behavior, leading to more harmonious interactions and deeper connections with others. By cultivating a loving and compassionate mindset, individuals are more inclined to respond to others’ suffering with care and understanding.

Loving-Kindness Meditation in Buddhist Tradition

Buddhism and compassion

Compassion lies at the heart of Buddhism. It is considered one of the key virtues to cultivate on the path to enlightenment. Buddhism teaches that compassion is the foundation for personal transformation and essential for developing a deep sense of interconnectedness with all beings.

Loving-kindness as a meditation practice

Loving-Kindness Meditation holds a central place in Buddhist meditation practices. It is regarded as a powerful tool for cultivating love, kindness, and compassion towards oneself and others. By systematically generating positive intentions and emotions, practitioners seek to overcome barriers that hinder the development of genuine compassion.

Connection to the Four Brahma Viharas

In Buddhism, Loving-Kindness Meditation is intricately connected with the Four Brahma Viharas, also known as the Divine Abidings. These four qualities—loving-kindness, compassion, empathetic joy, and equanimity—are considered the highest expressions of human virtues. Loving-Kindness Meditation serves as the foundation for developing these qualities and promoting a wholesome and compassionate way of being.

Loving-Kindness Meditation and Self-Compassion

Developing self-compassion

Loving-Kindness Meditation provides a powerful means to cultivate self-compassion. By directing kind and loving thoughts towards oneself, individuals learn to embrace their own imperfections and treat themselves with kindness and understanding. This practice can help individuals overcome self-criticism, enhance self-acceptance, and foster a positive self-image.

Overcoming self-criticism

Many individuals struggle with self-criticism and negative self-talk. Loving-Kindness Meditation offers a transformative approach to counter these patterns by replacing self-judgment with self-compassion. By acknowledging one’s own suffering and extending loving-kindness towards oneself, individuals can break free from the cycle of self-criticism and cultivate greater self-acceptance and inner peace.

Building resilience and self-care

Engaging in Loving-Kindness Meditation regularly can contribute to building emotional resilience and promoting self-care. By nurturing a compassionate and caring attitude towards oneself, individuals develop the capacity to endure life’s challenges with greater ease and compassionately attend to their own needs. This practice encourages individuals to prioritize self-care and maintain their overall well-being.

Practical Tips and Techniques for Loving-Kindness Meditation

Finding the right time and space

Choose a time and place where you can practice undisturbed. It can be helpful to establish a consistent meditation routine to cultivate a sense of ritual and commitment to the practice. Find a quiet and comfortable space where you feel at ease and can focus without distractions.

Using guided meditation

If you’re new to Loving-Kindness Meditation, guided meditations can be a helpful tool to get started. There are numerous guided meditation recordings and smartphone apps available that offer step-by-step instructions and provide guidance throughout the practice.

Adapting the practice to personal preferences

Loving-Kindness Meditation can be adapted to suit individual preferences and beliefs. Feel free to modify the loving-kindness phrases, adjust the length of the meditation, or experiment with different techniques to find what resonates best for you. Remember, the essence of the practice lies in cultivating love and kindness.

Incorporating loving-kindness into daily life

Loving-Kindness Meditation is not limited to the meditation cushion; it can be integrated into everyday life. By bringing a mindset of love and kindness to daily interactions, conversations, and actions, individuals can extend the benefits of the practice beyond formal meditation sessions. Small acts of kindness and compassion towards oneself and others can have a profound impact on personal well-being and the world around us.

Dealing with challenges and resistance

It is common to encounter challenges and resistance when practicing Loving-Kindness Meditation. Negative thoughts, distractions, or feelings of discomfort may arise. Instead of trying to suppress or ignore these difficulties, it is important to acknowledge them with kindness and gently bring the focus back to the practice. Over time, these challenges can become opportunities for growth and deeper self-understanding.

Cultural Significance of Loving-Kindness Meditation

Cultural origins and traditions

Loving-Kindness Meditation emerged within the cultural context of ancient India and the teachings of Gautama Buddha. It has been passed down through generations and has become an integral part of various Eastern spiritual traditions and cultures.

Loving-kindness in different religions and philosophies

While Loving-Kindness Meditation has strong roots in Buddhism, variations of this practice can also be found in other religious and philosophical traditions. Similar practices focusing on cultivating love, kindness, and compassion can be found in Hinduism, Jainism, Taoism, and even secular mindfulness-based approaches.

Ethical Dimensions of Loving-Kindness Meditation

Compassion towards all beings

Loving-Kindness Meditation emphasizes compassion towards all beings, including oneself, loved ones, strangers, and even difficult individuals. This practice encourages individuals to extend kindness and understanding to everyone, regardless of differences, cultivating a sense of shared humanity and interdependence.

Extending compassion to difficult individuals

One of the unique aspects of Loving-Kindness Meditation is the intentional cultivation of kindness towards difficult individuals. By practicing compassion and understanding towards those who have caused harm or evoke negative emotions, individuals can foster healing and transformation, both within themselves and in their relationships with others.

The role of forgiveness and non-judgment

Loving-Kindness Meditation invites individuals to cultivate forgiveness and non-judgment towards themselves and others. By letting go of resentments and judgments, individuals can free themselves from the burden of negative emotions and open the path to healing and reconciliation.

Loving-Kindness Meditation and Social Change

Promoting empathy and understanding

Loving-Kindness Meditation has the potential to be a catalyst for social change by promoting empathy and understanding. As individuals cultivate compassion within themselves, they become more attuned to the suffering of others and are inspired to take compassionate action towards building a more just and kind society.

The potential for collective compassion

When individuals come together in collective practice, the power of Loving-Kindness Meditation is magnified. Group meditations or loving-kindness circles create a shared atmosphere of compassion, fostering a sense of collective responsibility and unity.

Addressing societal divisions and conflicts

The practice of Loving-Kindness Meditation can be a transformative tool for addressing societal divisions and conflicts. By fostering compassion and empathy, this practice opens up possibilities for dialogue, reconciliation, and finding common ground amidst differences. Loving-Kindness Meditation invites us to see beyond our own perspectives and work towards healing and understanding on a larger scale.


Loving-Kindness Meditation is a profound practice that has the potential to bring about personal and societal transformation. By cultivating love, kindness, and compassion, individuals can experience profound emotional, mental, and physical benefits. This practice reminds us of the interconnectedness of all beings and encourages us to live with kindness, empathy, and understanding towards ourselves and others. Through Loving-Kindness Meditation, we can contribute to a more compassionate and harmonious world.

1. Loving Kindness in the Hindu Tradition

(Bhakti Yoga)

2. Loving Kindness in the Buddhist Tradition

(Metta Meditation)

3. Loving Kindness in the Sufi Tradition

(A Prayer or Du’aa)

4. Loving Kindness in the Christian Tradition

(Loving Kindness & Non-Injury)

Loving Kindness in the Hindu Tradition

Bhakti Yoga

The Yoga of Devotion

In the Hindu Tradition, this Meditation is recognized as a form of Bhakti Yoga or the Yoga of Devotion.

Bhakti Yoga is considered the most direct & fastest way to Experience the Divine or God.

It is a part of the Yogic Path that aims toward Loving Union with the Supreme Lord.

Bhakti Yoga is an active expression of Complete Faith.

The Subject of the Meditation & Object merge into Oneness … &


Paramahamsa Yogananda said it like this:

“Through Devotion we see the Divinity in every Creature –

in every Thing thereby “Maintaining unceasing Worship”.

When a Meditator does regular Practice of The Meditation on Loving Kindness and Blesses Mother Earth and Every Person and Every Being – this causes Divine Energy to flow down into a Meditator filling them with Divine Power, Divine Intelligence and Divine Love (or Spiritual Light) called in the Hindu Tradition SAT, CHIT, ANANDA.

In Sanskrit the Spiritual Cord is called SUTRATMA or The Spiritual Root of the Soul. In an ordinary person it is as thin as a Strand of Hair or a Spider Thread.

When a Meditator activates their Heart and Crown Energy Centers the Divine Energy can then come down – passing through the Spiritual Cord.

Practice of this Meditation manifests as the Meditator’s SUTRATMA becoming functionally larger.

The effect of this increased Divine Energy creates faster thinking, deep understanding of events, greater Intuition, a strong immunity, more Balanced Emotions, greater Healing Power and much more.


Meditation literally means “Dhyana” is a Sanskrit word which refers to deep thought, consideration, enlightenment and transcendental concentration.”

Meditation literally means “Dhyana” used in Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism with their different meanings according to their traditions. Dhyana is deeply involved with yoga practices & terminates into Samadhi which refers to meditative mindfulness.

The approach of Dhyana ‘Meditation’ and its methods were first introduced in the Vedic and Upanishadic era and accepted further in the Hindu, Buddhist, and Jain traditions. Dhyaan was mainly determined in a period of different beliefs of Hinduism.

Meditation in Hinduism is a factor of self-controlled experience which unites with yoga practices & is used by Sadhak (Yogi) to become aware of inner self, one’s accord with divine power & extreme existence.

With Meditation, an individual can overpower his weak thinking, mental and spiritual obstruction, fears, nervousness, stress, and depression by realizing the causes and become capable of managing them. The more you achieve self-awareness, the more you command over your responses, feedbacks, and reactions.

Meditation (Dhyana) is a practice performs with peace, balance & separation with the aim of monitoring the ingoing & outgoing operation of ideas from the mind. According to the Hindu scriptures of composition, the whole existence in and of the world and universe emerged from God through Dhyana only.

The word ‘Dhyana’ was not used by the Vedic prophets at the beginning of Vedic ideology. But they used to perform this practice knowing its importance and benefits.

The arise of Upanishadic ideas and beliefs that man embodied the whole natural world inside himself and that unseen deep profound inner him was an endless law that was entire being in its personal facet was the primary reason of developing the Vedic notion of Meditation.

Words such as Manta, Dhvai, Drsti, Mati & Dhaya used to designate meditation in the Upanishads. But the most prominent devotional method in meditation was Tapas, which was grounded in Vedic tradition and in that meditation composed factor of severity and repentance that were desired to produce physical fire to blaze away from the dirt of the body and mind.

Upasana is another word, used to define meditation in the Upanishads very often. This meditative practice appears to have moderately emerged into Dhyana. But according to the Vedic monks or prophets, Dhyana is a much deeper meditative procedure which is beyond the external tradition element and the holy devoutness.

Hindu meditation, it’s importance and types of Hinduism

Hindu meditation is spiritual tools that originate from the Hindu tradition that provides the one a great understanding of one’s Self or the Divine. It can be done through either chanting, repeating mantras (sacred words and sounds), working with the body (Hatha Yoga) and breathing practices (pranayama) and meditations that focus on an image and many other practices.

Importance of Hindu meditation

When our brain and body gets stressed because of too much activity, then it becomes necessary to do something for mind relaxation. Hindu meditation practices help our mind to get rid out of unwanted thoughts and to attain a state of calmness and peace.

It aids you to achieve emotional stability and changes your outlook towards a circumstance. Thus helps you to think in a positive manner. It helps you to stop worrying about the events of future and past negative experiences.

Hindu meditation is significant in enhancing your health by controlling the blood pressure and cholesterol levels. Meditation encourages the mind to come out of the worthless thoughts. It calms the mind and thus ensures a sound sleep. It has a positive effect on your nervous system as it helps in overcoming the stress causing chemicals.

Types of Hindu Meditation

Below are the different types of meditation that have their origin in the Hindu tradition.

•    Om meditation

Om mantra is a word that is constantly repeated with the purpose of focusing your mind. It is very important to pronounce the word correctly as it is linked with the right type of “vibration”, according to some meditation teachers.

But according to others, the mantra is a tool used to concentrate your mind. Many people find it easier to use a mantra in comparison to the breathing practices. It’s easier to focus your mind with a mantra because a mantra itself is a word, and your thoughts are perceived as words.

•    Transcendental meditation

This is a form of mantra meditation and it was introduced in the year 1955 by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi. There are over 5 million practitioners of this meditation worldwide.

In this meditation, use a mantra for about 15-20 minutes while sitting with closed eyes. You can practice it twice or thrice a day. If you wish to practice transcendental meditation, then you need to do a lot of before to do so.

•    Self-inquiry, “I am” meditation

This meditation means investigating and understanding our true self. It gives an answer to the question “ Who am I?”

This is practiced by asking repeatedly the question to yourself “Who am I? Use this question to simply focus your attention on the subjective feeling of “I” and “ I am”. Reject verbal answers to the question. Go deep into it and become one with this feeling to uncover the meaning of true “I”.

If you do not have any previous experience of meditation, this practice can be very tough to follow. But when practiced regularly, it can bring peace and inner freedom.

•    Yoga meditation

There are several divisions of this practice including physical postures (asanas), breathing exercises (pranayamas), the rules of conduct (Yamas and Niyamas) and contemplative practices of meditation (pratyahara, dharma, samadhi).

Some of the types of Yoga are:

•    Third eye meditation is used to put the attention on the spot between the eyebrows.

•    Kundalini meditation is practiced with the goal of awakening the Kundalini energy that lies at the base of the spine.

•    Gazing meditation is done with the open eyes, putting the focus on external objects for concentration and visualization.

•    Chakra meditation is practiced by focusing on seven chakras of the body.

•    Kriya yoga is a collection of breathing, energy and meditation exercises.

•    Soundmeditationwhere the practitioner starts the meditation by focusing on sound by listening to ambient music and at a time including chants of “Om”.

Among all these,“ third eye meditation” is the simplest form.


1. Meditation is the foundation on which Hinduism is built

2. The Vedas, the most sacred books of Hinduism, are based on Vedic Meditation.

3. It is not possible to understand Vedas without Mastering Vedic Meditation.

4. Meditation is the cheapest, fastest, easiest and the most reliable way for appeasing any Hindu god

5. A Hindu can’t attain Moksha without becoming a master of Vedic Meditation. Bhakti Yoga, Jnana Yoga, Raja Yoga, Karma Yoga are not much use in the modern world to attain Moksha. One can’t attain Moksha through good deeds.


1. Meditation is the foundation on which Hinduism is built

2. The Vedas, the most sacred books of Hinduism, are based on Vedic Meditation.

3. It is not possible to understand Vedas without Mastering Vedic Meditation.

4. Meditation is the cheapest, fastest, easiest and the most reliable way for appeasing any Hindu god

5. A Hindu can’t attain Moksha without becoming a master of Vedic Meditation. Bhakti Yoga, Jnana Yoga, Raja Yoga, Karma Yoga are not much use in the modern world to attain Moksha. One can’t attain Moksha through good deeds.

Daily Hindu Meditation: According to Bhagavad Gita

Meditation is meant for integrating and bringing fulfillment in our day to day life activities. It is to clean the mental toxins.  It has nothing to do with philosophy. Philosophy came later into the meditation for different purpose, mainly to attract mind oriented people. However, Bhagavad Gita meditation is much more real and much more practical.  Bhagavad Gita meditation deepens our understanding for skillful actions and for wise choices in life. Bhagavad Gita taught us to be wiser, and to be happier, as a better person, a better spouse, family man, parent, child, sibling, colleague, neighbor and world citizen.

Body Preparation:

According to the Bhagavad Gita the knowledge of the field (body) and the knower of the field (the consciousness) is the true knowledge.

“This body, Kaunteya, is called the field;

this one who knows  the nature of the field,

is known as the knower of the field.

And also this knower of this field is the knower of all fields,

knowledge of this field and the knower of the field, is the true knowledge. “

– Bhagavad Gita [13.1-3]

When you want to meditate, first, wash your feet. This is the first step of all Hindu meditations.  In meditation your body must feel fresh, comfortable, relaxed and clean. Taking a shower or even washing your face, hands and feet will give you a fresher feeling. In the morning, your body must feel comfortable for meditation. You can empty the bladder and bowels first and then prepare for meditation. Bhagavad Gita [6.11] said “Having established a firm seat, let him firmly hold his body, head, and neck erect and still, gazing at the tip of the nose above the lips, without looking around,  thinking of pure Love.”

“The supreme Spirit in this body is also known as the observer, allower, supporter, experiencer, the great Lord and the supreme soul.

Whoever thus knows Spirit and nature of the body together with the qualities,

even in any stage of existence, she is not born again.”


This is a good verse for your morning or evening prayers if you choose to include it as a part of your own personal tradition. According to Bhagavad Gita, you don’t need to change your traditions. Be sincere and pray to your chosen God from the depth of your heart. Gita said:

“As the one sun illumines this entire world,

so One Lord illumines all the fields.

Those who know by the eye of knowledge

the distinction between the field and the field knower evaporates,

and gets liberation from nature go to the supreme.”

Relax and stretch the muscles:

A few minutes of easy and gentle yoga exercises can create a vast improvement in the quality of your meditation.  Relax your hands and feet, eyes, face and head as if these are part of the field of supreme Lord.

 “The supreme God is said to be neither being nor non-being.  Everywhere having hands and feet, everywhere eyes, heads, faces, everywhere in the world ears, this stands all pervading.”

Breathing practices (nadi shodhana):

Sit in your chosen meditation posture with your eyes gently closed and the head, neck and trunk straight. Complete three rounds of Alternate Nostril Breathing Exercise (Nadi Shodhana).

“Whoever perceives the same supreme Lord situated in all beings, not perishing in their perishing, this one perceives; for perceiving the same Lord established everywhere,

one does not hurt the soul with the soul. Then one goes to the supreme goal.” – Bhagavad Gita 6.29-30

Relaxation practice (body scanning):

Sitting in your meditation posture, with your eyes gently closed and your head, neck and trunk held straight, inhale and exhale through the nostrils slowly, smoothly and deeply. There should be no noise, jerks or pauses in the breath; let the inhalations and exhalations flow naturally without exertion in one continuous movement. Keep the body still. Mentally travel through the body systemically paying attention to major muscle groups, joints and organs. Move progressively down the body from the crown of the head to the toes and then back up again.

Humility is the Divine state of non-ego. It is the state of selflessness. It is the sate to realize that there is only one God.

Meditation beyond Concentration:

After completing preliminary breathing and relaxation exercises you are ready to meditate. Assume your chosen meditation posture either in a straight back chair or in a traditional seated posture on the floor. Be sure that the head, neck and trunk are straight. Next, apply the “Finger Lock” (the thumb and forefinger together, resting the hands and palms downward). Next apply the “Root Lock” (gently tightening the anal sphincter muscle). With your eyes gently closed, place your attention on the space between your two nostrils (where it meets the upper lip). As you inhale, mentally hear the sound SO  and as you exhale, mentally hear the sound HUM. Inhale and exhale approximately for five times with your attention at the bridge between your nostrils using the So-Hum mantra. Notice that your breath has become smooth and calm. Next, inhale and exhale approximately for five times with your attention moving up and down between the your nostrils and the space between the two eyebrows. Continue to listen to the So-Hum mantra. Now, rest your attention on the space between the two eyebrows (approximately one inch deep toward the brain). This is the place at which you will meditate. Sit quietly without any movement and lovingly listen to the sound and vibration of your mantra. As thoughts, images or sounds come into your awareness, do not push them away or become angry with yourself for being a poor meditator. Simply witness any thought that competes with the mantra, willingly sacrifice it to your personal concept of the Divine Reality, and  then gently redirect your attention back to your mantra. Continue to listen to the sound of your mantra. Instead of So-Hum mantra one can use “Om” mantra.

Both Bhagavad Gita and Srimad Bhagavatam specifically prescribe the OM mantra meditation in details. It is said “One should manifest in his mind the sound of the Pranava (Om) continuously as the ringing of a bell-as extending uninterruptedly, fine as a fiber of a lotus stalk.” Sri Amit Ray in the book “OM Chanting and Meditation” beautifully explained the subtle aspects of Om meditations in details for the modern readers.

Finishing the meditation:

When you are ready to end your meditation, first bring your mental awareness into the “cave of the heart” (mid-point between the two breasts). With your attention inside the heart center, acknowledge the Divine Reality within, and rest in that fullness.  Next, make the transition to external awareness by bringing your cupped hands over your eyes. As you gently open your eyes into your cupped palms, keep your attention on the Divinity that resides within the “cave of the heart” as you silently repeat these words: “Lead me from the unreal to the real.” As you slowly separate the fingers to permit light to reach your awareness, silently say “Lead from the darkness to the light.” Finally, as you slowly place your hands gently on your thighs silently repeat “Lead me from mortality to immortality.”

According to Bhagavad Gita “Mind is the friend Of those who have control over it, mind acts like an enemy For those who do not have control on it;”  and meditation is the process of washing the mind by the mind so you have your thoughts are under your control.

What are Chakras?

In yogic philosophy, a chakra is a specific energy center of the body. The word “chakra” translates as ”wheel” and chakras are believed to be spinning disks (vortices) of energy that correspond to the major organs, glands, endocrine system, and nervous system. The chakras contain the body’s energy and can either be in alignment (health) or out of balance (illness). The vital life force of the body is known as prana in Sanskrit and represents the vital principle and breath of the body’s energy system. The chakras store the experiences, memories, feelings, and thoughts of the body.

While some schools of thought discuss 113 chakras, there are seven primary chakras in the body that are found along the length of the spine. They are known as the root, sacral, solar plexus, heart, throat, third eye, and crown chakras. The chakras that are lower in the body correlate to earthly elements such as power, survival, and sex, while the upper chakras correlate to truth, purpose, intuition, and higher consciousness. The heart chakra bridges the lower and upper elements through compassion, love, and empathy.

The Seven Chakras System

1.            Root Chakra (Muladhara) — At the base of the spine, the root chakra corresponds to the adrenal glands and relates to survival issues and self-preservation. The root chakra spans the first three vertebrae of the spine. When the root chakra is open, one feels grounded, confident, and secure. When the root chakra is blocked, one can experience issues such as bladder problems, constipation, and arthritis. The color is red, the element is earth, and the stone is hematite.

2.            Sacral Chakra (Swadhisthana) — In the lower abdomen, below the naval and above the pubic bone, the sacral chakra corresponds to the ovaries and testicles and relates to regulating emotions, creativity, and sexual energy. When the sacral chakra is open, one feels a sense of well-being, abundance, and pleasure. When the sacral chakra is blocked, one can experience lower back pain, urinary tract infections, and impotency. The color is orange, the element is water, and the stone is tiger’s eye.

3.            Solar Plexus Chakra (Manipura) — In the upper abdomen, between the breastbone and the naval, the solar plexus chakra corresponds to the pancreas and spleen and relates to self-worth. When the solar plexus chakra is open, one feels improved self-esteem and self-confidence. When the solar plexus chakra is blocked, one can experience digestive issues and eating disorders. The color is yellow, the element is fire, and the stone is amber.

4.            Heart Chakra (Anahata) — In the heart center, the heart chakra acts as a bridge connecting the lower chakras and the upper chakras and corresponds to the thymus gland. The heart chakra relates to love and compassion, and blocks in the heart chakra can manifest as asthma, weight issues, and heart problems. A heart chakra that is out of alignment can create feelings of insecurity and loneliness. The color is green, the element is air, and the stone is rose quartz.

5.            Throat Chakra (Vishuddha) — In the throat, the throat chakra corresponds to the thyroid and parathyroid and relates to one’s ability to communicate and express personal power. When the throat chakra is open, one can communicate with confidence and compassion, while a blocked throat chakra can manifest as trouble communicating thoughts and emotions; one may also be prone to gossiping and dominating conversations with a misaligned throat chakra. The color is light blue or turquoise, the element is sound, and the stone is aquamarine.

6.            Third Eye Chakra (Anja) — On the forehead between the eyebrows, the third eye chakra corresponds to the pituitary gland and relates to intuition, wisdom, and imagination. When the third eye chakra is open, one can see the big picture. When the third eye chakra is blocked, one may experience vision and concentration issues, along with headaches. The color is purple, the element is light, and the stone is amethyst.

7.            Crown Chakra (Sahasrara) — On the crown of the head, the crown chakra corresponds to the pineal gland and represents one’s ability to be spiritually connected to higher consciousness and the divine. The crown chakra connects to every other chakra in the body and affects the nervous system and brain. When the crown chakra is open, one feels enlightenment and an immense sense of beauty in the universe. When the crown chakra is blocked, one can seem stubborn and narrow-minded. The color is violet or white, the element is divine consciousness, and the stone is clear quartz.

Chakra Meditation

Meditation is an essential element of Hinduism and Buddhism’s spiritual practices. It helps the practitioner achieve awareness, mindfulness, clarity, and stability in the mind and body. There are countless forms of meditation, including seated meditation, walking meditation, loving-kindness meditation, and focused meditation. Chakra meditation is a meditation practice that aims to open the chakras of the body, clear out any blockages, and facilitate pure and healthy energy flowing through the body’s systems. A chakra healing meditation may focus on one particular chakra at a time, directing the energy of the mind toward a specific part of the body and visualizing a healthy, spinning energetic wheel. Meditation is believed to be one of the most efficient ways to heal and balance the chakras.

Chakra Healing

Chakras are balanced in Ayurveda to help heal the body’s energy. Ayurveda is an Indian system of holistic medicine based on the concept that illness and disease are caused by stresses and imbalances in the consciousness of a person. Ayurveda is an ancient practice that dates back over 3,000 years and teaches that wellness depends upon a balance of healthy energy in mind, body, and spirit.

Chakra Symbols

The appropriate symbol for each chakra is either a square, circle, triangle, or half-moon encircled by a lotus blossom. Every geometric component of the chakra sign has a unique symbolic representation that shows the element, the symbolic meaning, and the associated color.

In the root chakra symbol, the inverted triangle represents the elemental symbol for earth, and each point symbolizes experience, consciousness, and the three divinities.

 The square represents the foundation and stability of life, while the four-petalled lotus represents the four areas of consciousness: mind (manas), intellect (buddhi), consciousness (chitta), and ego (ahamkara). The color red inspires a sense of safety, security, and inner power.

Lesson Summary

In Hinduism and yogic philosophy, a chakra is an energy center of the body. Chakra, which translates as ”wheel,” is a spinning vortex of energy that corresponds to the major glands, organs, and nervous system. Chakras contain the body’s prana, which is the Sanskrit word for energy. There are seven primary chakras in the body: the root, sacral, solar plexus, heart, throat, third eye, and crown.

What do the 7 chakras mean spiritually?

Each chakra corresponds to physical, mental, and psychic emotions. While the lower three chakras affect earthly elements such as power, survival, and sex, the upper three chakras correspond to higher consciousness, intuition, purpose, and truth. The heart chakra is the bridge between the lower and upper chakras.

How do I unblock my chakras?

Blocked chakras can lead to illness, disease, and a lack of stability in the mind, body, and spirit. Effective means for unblocking the chakras are the practices of yoga and meditation. Chakra meditation is when the practitioner meditates on a particular chakra’s healing and energy flow.

How do chakras work?

Chakras correspond to the major organs, glands, and nervous system. Open chakras allow energy to flow up and down the spine and between various points in the body, resulting in overall organ and endocrine system health and wellness.

How do you tell if your chakras are blocked?

Each chakra corresponds to a specific emotion or state of being. A blocked root chakra can lead to bladder problems, constipation, and arthritis. A blocked solar plexus chakra can lead to digestive issues, while a blocked throat chakra can affect one’s ability to communicate thoughts and emotions. When the third eye chakra is blocked, one might experience headaches and concentration issues.


As per our Hindu Shastra, there are 7 chakras of energy in our body which controls our psychological qualities.

Upper Body Chakras:-

There are four chakras in our upper body those are responsible for our mental state.

Lower Body Chakras:-

There are three chakras in our lower body those are responsible for our instincts.

1.    The Muladhara (root) chakra.(Red)

2.    The Svadhisthana (sacral) chakra.(Orange)

3.    The Manipura (solar plexus) chakra.(Yellow)

4.    The Anahata(heart) chakra.(Green)

5.    The Visuddhi (throat) chakra.(Blue)

6.    The Ajna (third eye) chakra (Indigo)

7.    The Sahasrara (crown) chakra.(Violet)

If your chakra is overactive or less active and is not balanced then you’ll not have peace with yourself.

So here we’ll discuss that how can we start ‘Chakra Meditation’?

1. First, we start with Root Chakra. This chakra is related to our feelings in any situation.

If this chakra is balanced then you’ll feel sensible, stable and secure in any situation. It keeps you aware. Have you problem with trusting people around you? Then this chakra will help you with it. So how will you do it? Just follow below steps :

Ground yourself. This means you ought to connect with the ground and feel it under you. To do this, standing straight and loose, put your feet shoulder width separated, and marginally twist your knees. Move your pelvis a bit, and keep your body adjusted, with the goal that your weight is equally dispersed over the bottoms of your feet. At that point drop your weight forward. Remain in this position for a few minutes.

After few minutes sit crossed leg as shown below.

Now, let the tips of index finger and thumb touch gently as shown in the picture. Then focus on your chakra and what it stands for, at the spot in the middle of genital and rear-end.

Quietly chant the sound ‘LAM’.

Thinking about chakra, chanting a sound also visualize a closed red flower. Imagine that flower is radiating very powerful energy. Visualize that flower opens during your focused meditation.

Get the perineum holding breath and releasing it.

2. The second chakra is Sacral chakra which is related to feeling and sexuality.

When this chakra opens you can release your feelings with liberty and express it without being over emotional.

To open this chakra and balance it you can follow below steps:

Sit on your knees as shown in the picture. Keep your back straight and stay relaxed.

Put your hands on your lap and palms up. Keep your left palm under your right palm as shown in the picture your thumbs should touch gently.

Focus on your sacral chakra which is on your lower back then quietly chant the sound ‘VAM’.

Keep relaxing yourself thinking about that chakra and you’ll have ‘clean’ feeling.

3. Now let’s discuss ‘Navel Chakra’. It is related to confidence, especially when in a group.

If it is overactive you tend to be aggressive in nature.

To balance this chakra follow below steps:

Sit on your knees keeping your back straight. As shown in the picture let the fingers join at the tops, all pointing far from you and cross the thumbs.

Now focus on the Navel Chakra which is marginally over the navel. Quietly, chant the sound ‘SLAM’. Continue doing this until the point that you are totally relaxed.

4. Heart Chakra is all about love and care.

If it’s under active you tend to be cold and unfriendly. If it is overactive you tend to be so ‘loving’ for people which can suffocate them.

To balance this chakra sit crossed leg. Let the tips of your thumb and index finger touch on both hands.

Keep your left hand on your left knee and your right hand in front of the lower part of your breastbone as shown in the picture.

Now focus on this chakra and quietly chat the sound ‘YAM’. Keep on doing until you find yourself relax.

5. The fifth chakra is Throat Chakra which is related to your communication skills.

If you are having talkative nature then your chakra must be overactive and if it is under active then you must be a shy person.

To balance it follow steps below:

 The position of sitting is same here where you’ll sit on your knees but again hands position is little different where you need to cross your fingers inside of your hands and thumbs tips will touch each other at the top as shown in the picture.

Focus on throat chakra and chant the sound ‘HAM’.

Keep doing for five minutes and relax your body.

6. Let’s talk about Third Eye chakra. As the name denotes this chakra deals with insight.

If this chakra is less active then you want people to think for you and take decision for you, and if it’s overactive then you start daydreaming and a lot of imagination.

To balance Third eye chakra follow below steps :

Cross your legs and sit.

Keep your hands and fingers position as shown in the picture.

Focus on Third eye chakra and chant the sound ‘OM’. Continue it until you find cleanliness.

7. Last but not the least, Crown chakra is the most spiritual chakra.

By balancing it you can be one with the universe. When this chakra is under active you might have rigid thoughts and if it is overactive you intellectualize things all the time. Sometime in overactive state person also ignore his or her body needs like food, water, and shelter.

To balance crown chakra sit cross-legged and place your fingers and hands as shown in the picture.

This chakra’s meditation is longest by 10 minutes and there is also warning here that if your root chakra isn’t open then you shouldn’t try this chakra meditation.

Chakra Meditation

Want to learn what Chakra Meditation is and how it can benefit you? Continue reading!

What are the seven chakras?

Chakras, as they are known in Hinduism, are part of a connected energy system within the body. The term chakra, which literally means “wheel” in Sanskrit, refers to one of seven points within this energy system.

Each energy point acts as a wheel, spinning and vibrating with energy. The higher the frequency of vibration, the more in balance your chakras will be.

Altogether, each of the seven chakras aligns with a specific point along the spine. The chakras are named:


Root chakra (Muladhara)

•             Sacral chakra (Svadhisthana)

•             Solar Plexus chakra (Manipura)

•             Heart chakra (Anahata)

•             Throat chakra (Vishuddha)

•             Third Eye chakra (Ajna)

•             Crown chakra (Sahasrara)

In addition, each chakra is represented by a specific color:

•             Crown chakra = violet/purple

•             Third Eye chakra = indigo

•             Throat chakra = blue

•             Heart chakra = green

•             Solar Plexus chakra = yellow

•             Sacral chakra = orange

•             Root chakra = red

History of chakra meditation

The chakra meditation technique comes from ancient Hinduism. The chakras were first mentioned in the Vedas (ancient Hindu scriptures), somewhere between 1500 to 500 BCE.

According to the Vedas, the chakras are said to be shaped like lotus flowers with many petals. The petals, in turn, are associated with specific chakra sounds, containing the unique alphabet sounds (phonemes) of the Sanskrit language.

With vibration among the petals, the chakras open up. The higher the frequency, the more in line your chakras will be.

What is chakra meditation?

Do you want to know how to open your chakra petals for improved mental awareness and emotional balance? The answer is meditation for the chakras.

Meditation for the chakras includes a number of approaches to mindfulness and

meditation. Essentially, it is a form of meditation that targets your blocked or unaligned chakras. You may choose to use chakra color meditation, a meditation on energy, or an individual chakra.

In the latter (meditation on an individual chakra), the goal is to focus on one individual chakra.

For example, you might focus on the root chakra only, targeting the emotional and physical areas that this chakra represents and influences.

If you chose to do a Root chakra meditation, you would be focusing on chakra elements such as security, stability, and overall basic needs. For instance, you might be concentrating on needs such as shelter, food, safety, and water. Interconnection and responsibility are some of the emotional needs you might focus on as well.

How to open and align chakras

If you want to know how to unblock chakras or how to align chakras, here is a brief overview.

Start with a chakra test

Basically, you want to see if your chakras are out of balance. Many people describe an imbalance in their chakras as a feeling of being “off.” Still, it can be difficult to know for sure.

Try asking yourself these questions to find out if you have imbalanced chakras:

1.            Do you have any physical pain — especially chronic pain that doesn’t ever seem to go away entirely?

2.            Do you have pain that specifically affects the spine, neck, shoulders, or head?

3.            Are you often moody?

4.            Have you ever been diagnosed with depression?

5.            Are you fearful of being alone?

6.            Are you having trouble sleeping?

7.            Have your self-esteem and confidence been suffering?

8.            Have you recently found yourself being overly critical of yourself or others?

If you answered yes to at least four of these questions, it may be time to open and align your chakras.

Try a deep “box breathing” chakra meditation

To perform a deep breathing chakra meditation, first, find a quiet place where you can be alone. Sit with your legs crossed at the edge of a meditation cushion or firm pillow. Put your hands on your knees with your palms facing up. Cast your eyes downward or close them gently.

Start with one deep breath in. Allow your belly to expand outward as you inhale through your nose. Count to four slowly until your lungs are completely full of air. Hold the air lightly in your lungs for another count of four. Now, exhale the air out of your mouth to a count of four.

Once all of the air is out of your lungs, hold for a final count of four. This is called square breathing or box breathing. Do this two additional times. Learn more about the benefits of box breathing.

Now, allow yourself to go back to breathing regularly.

Picture the chakra at the base of your spine (Root chakra). Spend at least one minute picturing it as a spinning red wheel or a red lotus flower with vibrating petals — whatever feels most right to you. Imagine it gaining energy and spinning/vibrating with more and more ferocity.

Allow that chakra to continue teeming with energy, then move on to the next chakra up (Sacral chakra meditation). Do the same thing.

Work your way up, doing the same with each chakra until you reach the Crown chakra.

Allow all of your chakras to hum, spin, and vibrate with energy for several moments (in visualization) as you round out the meditation with three more box breathing cycles.

Chakra meditation: frequently asked questions

What is chakra alignment?

Chakra alignment, chakra healing, chakra cleansing, chakra balancing, and chakra opening are all basically the same thing.

Chakra alignment refers to the healing energy applied to your chakras in order to make them more open, centered, and beneficial to your energy system.

You will know if your chakras are not aligned. Typical signs include compulsive behaviors, excessive fear, instability of emotions, uneasiness, frustration, and sadness. You may even have physical symptoms such as headaches, backaches, stomach issues, or digestive problems.

How many chakras are there?

In total, there are seven chakras:

•                     Root chakra (Muladhara)

•                     Sacral chakra (Svadhisthana)

•                     Solar Plexus chakra (Manipura)

•                     Heart chakra (Anahata)

•                     Throat chakra (Vishuddha)

•                     Third Eye chakra (Ajna)

•                     Crown chakra (Sahasrara)

How are the chakras activated?

Ideally, your chakras should be open, balanced, aligned, and activated. This means that all your chakras are vibrating at a high frequency.

When this occurs, you feel emotionally balanced, secure in your thoughts and feelings, and physically well. It does not mean that your problems will disappear.

However, balanced and activated chakras will help you feel more comfortable dealing with life’s challenges.

What is the best meditation hand position?

There are several different hand positions you can adopt during meditation.

You can start with a simple beginner hand position called The Dhyana Mudra. Essentially, this hand position has your palms facing up in your lap. One hand is over the other (right hand over the left), and you can place the tips of your two thumbs together.


If you have ever stepped inside a New Age wellness center, explored guided meditation on YouTube, or read about the supposed healing properties of crystals, it’s likely you have come across the term “chakras” and deduced that they are supposedly found in the human body. Possibly, you have also encountered the belief that chakras can become “blocked.” But what does any of that mean?

Across a range of spiritual practices and belief systems, chakras are typically characterized as points throughout the body that act as centers of psychic energy and spiritual power, which may be activated to unlock human potential and counter spiritual and physiological problems. Due to their prominence in New Age mysticism and holistic medicine, to many Western ears chakras might sound like hoodoo. However, the concept of chakras goes back thousands of years to ancient India, and it remains a cornerstone of Hinduism even today.

Chakras are also found in other religions, most notably esoteric and Tibetan Buddhism, but only in Hinduism are they held as a central spiritual tenet across the religion as a whole. Here is how chakras are thought of in Hinduism, and the meaning of each of the main seven chakras they believe are found throughout the human body.


Chakra” is the Sanskrit word for “wheel,” with such energy centers considered circular in Hindu belief and often represented as an open lotus flower. Chakras are most commonly associated with the Hindu god Vishnu, who is often portrayed holding a wheel. In Hinduism, both time and the universe itself are described in terms of a wheel, suggesting the cosmic nature of the energy that chakras are said to connect with.

There are seven main chakras according to Hinduism, starting from the very base of the torso and rising up along the spinal column to the very top of the head. Hinduism posits that there are in fact many hundreds of chakras found throughout the body, which all regulate psychic and spiritual energy and power. However, the central seven, which shall be outlined here, are the most important for physical and spiritual health and development and are what Hindus typically refer to when talking about the chakras of the human body.

It is important here to note that chakras are not considered to be psychical features, but rather are aspects of what is called the “subtle body,” a spiritual extension of the consciousness that coexists with the physical or “gross” body. Chakras can be considered points at which the psychical and spiritual planes of existence intersect, and thus by interacting with certain chakras through certain practices — most commonly yoga and meditation in Hinduism — a person may learn to balance or align their seven chakras to achieve spiritual advancement and, eventually, a state of enlightenment.


The first chakra, Muladhara, is located at the base of the spine, specifically at the perineum. Because of this, it is also commonly known as the root chakra — the whole series of chakras is often described in terms of the growth of a flower or tree — but there are other reasons why this name is especially apposite

The Muladhara — the name of which is a combination of the Sanskrit words meaning “source” and “support” — is considered fundamental to Hindu spiritual advancement and the unlocking of human potential. Represented as a four-petalled lotus and by the element earth, activation of the Muladhara is considered essential to enjoying personal security and stability, and therefore strength in the social and spiritual aspects of one’s life.

The root chakra is also said to be the source of untapped energy and potential. Activating the chakra through meditation and other practices is said to allow one to channel energy up the spine toward the higher chakras and to expand one’s consciousness into other spiritual fields. The spiritual energy in question is called kundalini, and for many practicing Hindus, harnessing one’s kundalini is considered the key to achieving a higher plane of being. According to Anodea Judith’s “Eastern Body, Western Mind,” unbalanced chakras may be described as being “deficient” or “excessive,” which in the case of the root chakra is said to lead to certain maladies. For example, a deficiency of the Muladhara is thought to lead to a disassociation with one’s body, while an excess may cause one to practice greed or hoarding behavior. In meditation, the root chakra is activated by the syllable “lam” being repeated as a mantra.


The second chakra running up the spinal column of the human body is called Svadhisthana, the sacral chakra, which is depicted as being located just above the genitals in the same position as the bladder Represented as a six-petalled white lotus containing a crescent moon, the sacral chakra is symbolized by water, reflecting its position close to the bladder and urinary tract. Svadhisthana is the chakra that is most closely related to fluidity in all spheres of life, from social interactions to how flexible one wishes to be about one’s identity and practices and one’s boundaries in life. It is said to be activated by meditating on the mantra “vam.”

But the sacral chakra is also, unsurprisingly, related to sexuality and pleasure, and is the chakra Hindus meditate over and try to balance to avoid issues such as a lack of libido or, on the contrary, sex addiction. Swadhisthana is closely associated with the moon — in Hinduism, the moon god is said to be responsible for fertility on Earth — and a crescent moon is featured in its symbol. It is also believed to be related to being creatively fertile and achieving what is often called a “flow” state.


The third chakra going upward from the base of the spine is located at the solar plexus, in the hollow between both sets of ribs, and is called Manipura, or, in English, the solar plexus chakra, though it is also noted in many sources as being aligned with the navel, the point at which humans are connected to the mother. Almost like a guiding light that draws the body forward, the Manipura is the seat of a person’s self-confidence and self-esteem.

It is through this chakra that Hindu yogis focus on ego issues, but also those of personal drive and motivation. Judith explains that the solar plexus chakra provides agency when balanced, whereas a deficiency may cause a lack of self-control and lead to a reliance on compulsive habits. On the other hand, an excess of Manipura can lead to controlling behavior. The element of this chakra is fire, and it is useful to perhaps consider Manipura the spiritual center of one’s “inner fire.” In classical Hindu teaching this makes sense, as traditionally it is through “fire” that it was believed the digestive system breaks down food for nutrients. Manipura is a red ten-petalled lotus, meditated upon using the mantra “ram.”


Above Manipura is found Anahata, the heart chakra, located in the middle of the chest. Hinduism typically associates the heart chakra with romantic love and personal relationships. Unlike the sexual associations of the sacral chakra, Anahata represents cosmic union between the sexes, with a six-pointed star over a 12-petalled grey lotus, though some sources describe Anahata as green. Though the star is perhaps reminiscent of the Star of David, experts claim that the two triangles, superimposed onto each other, symbolize cosmic union.

Anahata comes from the Sanskrit for “unbeaten drum,” suggesting communication distinct from that of the physical senses. Its element is air, through which the cosmic vibrations of the universe may be carried. It is believed that a deficiency in the heart chakra may cause anti- and asocial tendencies, while an excess would lead to possessiveness, jealousy, and the overstepping of other people’s boundaries. It is also the seat of empathy for people in general, and of self-love and compassion. It is activated by the syllable “yam” when used as a meditation mantra, according to Hindu yogis. In balancing the heart chakra, yogis often focus on breathing exercises that expand and contract the chest.


Vishuddha is the throat chakra, and somewhat unsurprisingly it is the chakra associated with speech and communication.

Traditionally, those considered to have a balanced Vishuddha are considered both clear communicators and receptive listeners, and are said to be identifiable by their bold, resonant voices. A deficiency of the throat chakra is said to manifest as shyness, both in terms of how loudly one is willing to speak and how often, while an excess is believed to cause the habit of talking too loudly and too often. Vishuddha is also linked to creativity, with meditation over the chakra said to aid in “finding your voice” in various art forms. Sound is particularly important in Hinduism, with the universe said to have been created by the god Shiva with the striking of a drum. Hence, sound is often evoked in Hinduism as being akin to cosmic energy, creation, and personal creativity. Vishuddha is also evoked with regard to musical ability, with tone-deafness and a lack of natural rhythm said to emanate from an imbalance in the chakra.

Activated through meditation using the syllable “ham,” the throat chakra is represented as a brilliant or “golden” white lotus of 16 petals, according to Jean Varenne’s “Yoga and the Hindu Tradition.” The word “Vishuddha” translates as “filter,” linking the chakra to purification and the purity of truth in communication.


Perhaps the most famous of the chakras, Ajna is located between the eyebrows and is known as the third eye chakra. Ajna is the Sanskrit word for “authority,” or “a command,” and the chakra is represented by a two-petalled white lotus. Its mantra during meditation is also the most famous of those used to activate the chakras: “om.” It is the third eye chakra that is referenced by the wearing of a bindi between the eyebrows in some Hindu traditions. Om is the syllable that most vividly evokes oneness of the universe, and to meditate on Ajna through it is to come to terms with one’s cosmic unity with everyone around us.

The third eye is the chakra most closely associated with sight, with bindis representing a third eye being “open” to the spiritual and physical worlds. When unbalanced, it is said that the closed third eye can lead to both delusions and a lack of empathy, i.e. the inability to perceive suffering in others or to see their point of view. The element of the third eye chakra is “light,” suggesting both perception and clarity.

In some schools of yoga, it is the third eye chakra that is first activated through meditation, before practitioners focus on the others. It is thought that this increases clarity in the practice, and minimizes false perceptions that might hinder a yogi’s path to higher consciousness.

The final, seventh chakra in the series is said to be located at the top of or just above the head, and is known in Sanskrit as Sahasrara, which means “thousand-petalled lotus.”  In English, it is often referred to as the crown chakra, and unlike the chakras below it that run up the spinal column to the eyebrow, it is assigned no other symbolic properties, such as color or element. Instead, Sahasrara is said to be related to “brahman,” the ungraspable and mysterious essence of the universe as described in the Vedas, ancient scriptures that serve as the foundation of Hinduism.

Indeed, Sahasrara is considered somewhat different from the other chakras, and it doesn’t have a specific mantra like those chakras discussed above. The crown chakra also differs in how it is depicted in that it appears to face down upon the body from above, whereas the lower chakras face outward. In this way, Sahasrara is shown as the portal to transcendence, a level above even the enlightenment achieved through the activation of the third eye chakra. As the chakra that is said to exist above the physical body, Sahasrara is considered to be apart from the physical world, and the chakra most closely associated with the divine.

As the chakra of thought and transcendence, Sahasrara when deficient is said to explain an obsession with material concerns over spiritual matters, while in excess it may cause an unhealthy addiction to spirituality.

There is another aspect to be taken into account in relation to the chakras as commonly outlined in Hindu belief: that there is a sacred energy running through the human body — both physical and “subtle” — that links all of the chakras together and provides their activation. This energy is known in Sanskrit as kundalini, and it is considered an important concept in many yogic practices.

“Kundalini” translates to English as “she who is curled around upon herself,” and is recognizable as the image of the ouroboros: the snake eating its own tail, which is a symbol of infinity. The energy that is said to exist in kundalini is also considered infinite in nature. Kundalini is described as a coiled serpent that resides in the root chakra, or Muladhara. It is believed that through yogic practices, the kundalini, like a snake, can be awoken to rise up through the chakras, empowering them in turn. In tantra, this is achieved by meditation on sexual energy, which is retained and instead channeled upward toward spiritual growth and endeavor.

The kundalini is commonly said to travel up through the subtle body in three channels, or nadis. The points at which these channels meet are the places in the body that correspond to the main chakras. The channels are said to be as fine as the stalks of a lotus flower.


There is no scientifically accepted evidence to support the existence of chakras, but then many Hindus would argue that is beside the point: As expressions of the “subtle body,” chakras are distinct from the physical body, and just as the spiritual plane of existence could not be captured using a camera, the chakras of the body may not be definitively located in the way an organ might be. However, some sources do highlight the physiognomic features of the human body that seem to correspond with the chakras, such as the fact that the Muladhara’s four-petalled lotus is uncannily reminiscent of the inferior hypogastric plexus, a nerve network found where the root chakra is said to reside. Similarly, others point to the existence of channels that run up the physical human spine as potential pathways for the flow of kundalini.

It is arguable, though, that the physical features of the body may have influenced the symbology of the chakras in the first place, and that it is, therefore, no surprise that their individual lotuses share commonalities with the body, or that the spine is believed to conduct spiritual energy in the same way we now know it carries signals through the nervous system. While chakras are certainly a reality for many Hindus and followers of certain other belief systems, the adoption of the chakra system in some forms of New Age spirituality has seen it stripped of its religious meaning, with some Western practitioners deploying the chakras on purely metaphorical grounds — for example, as an aid to psychotherapy.


The word chakra is derived from Sanskrit, meaning “wheel”, or “circle of life”. They consist of seven main energy centers found in the body and is associated with a variety of colors, symbols and Hindu gods. In Hinduism, the continuous flow of energy throughout the chakras is referred to as “Shakti”. The concept of chakra was first mentioned in the ancient sacred Hindu text, The Vedas, but also plays an important role in Tibetan Buddhism.

Chakras are located along the spine and influence different nerve systems, organs and glands with their energy. These vortexes of energy are originated from Brahman, according to Hindu beliefs. It is presumed that as Shakti flows from one chakra point to another it exhausts the body and soul. The energy that becomes coiled in the base of the spine (root chakra) is called Kundalini. The spiritual goal is to awaken and release the Kundalini in order to attain a greater consciousness and merge it with the Infinite consciousness of Brahman. Through meditation and Kundalini yoga, the energy can pass back up the spine until it reaches the top of the head (crown chakra), producing a mystical experience.

“Kundalini yoga consists of active and passive asana-based kriyas, pranayama, and meditations which target the whole body system (nervous system, glands, mental faculties, and chakras) to develop awareness, consciousness and spiritual strength.” –Yogi Bhajan

Chakras & Colors:

1. Muladhara: The Root Chakra – located at base of the spine. Associated with red. It affects your confidence, trust in life and self-esteem. It is from here that our base instincts arise; the need to survive or the fight or flight reflex. Hindu God –Lord Ganesh and Brahman.

2. Swadhisthana: The Sacral Chakra – located below the navel. Associated with orange. It affects sexual desires, attractions and the need to procreate. Other emotions, such as, anger, fear and hatred stem from this chakra. Hindu God –Lord Vishnu

3. Manipura: The Solar Plexus Chakra – located at the bottom of the breast bone. Associated with bright yellow. It affects the lower back, digestive system, liver and gall bladder. Feelings that are associated with this chakra, include, determination, self-acceptance and will power. It is here that instinctual emotion translates to more complex emotions. Hindu God –Maharudra Shiva

4. Anahata: The Heart Chakra – located at the center of the chest. Associated with green. Feelings associated with this location are love, compassion, emotional security, forgiveness and loving kindness. Hindu God –Ishvara

5. Vishuddha: The Throat Chakra – located at the throat, over the larynx. Associated with blue. It is the source of our ability to communicate, and express creativity and individuality. Hindu God – Sadashiva

6. Ajna: The Third Eye Chakra – located at front of the head in between eye brows. Associated with indigo. The mind, as the sense organ and action organ are associated with this chakra. Feelings associated with this chakra are spirituality, awareness, and sense of time. Hindu God -Ardhanarishvara –an androgynous form of Hindu god Lord Shiva and Parvati, also known as Devi and Shakti

7. Sahasrara: The Crown Chakra – located at the top of the head. Associated with purple, or gold. It is from this chakra that all others emanate. It relates to pure consciousness. In Hindu literature, it is known as “the supreme center of contact with God.” Here liberated ones abide in communion with the Self. Hindu God – Lord Shiva

“Good for the body is the work of the body, good for the soul the work of the soul, and good for either the work of the other”. –Henry David Thoreau

Meditation Chakras – The Wheels of life

Regular chakra meditation can transform your life by clearing out and enlivening your vital energy centers. This is the most direct way I know to heal ourselves on all levels of our being – physically, emotionally, mentally and spiritually. This facilitates awakening to the Truth Of Who We Are and floods our entire being with wellbeing. An aura is the energy field surrounding all life forms, including the human body, often described as egg shaped. Light energy is drawn into this egg, which acts like a prism and breaks the light into its component colour elements called “Chakras”.

The word “Chakra” comes from the Sanskrit world for “wheel” or “disk”. Their origin stems from the yoga system, more specifically from the Vedas. This system dates back as far as 2500BCE. There are hundreds of chakras on the body but in its basic form it embodies seven major energy centres that are arranged vertically along the spinal column, starting at the coccyx and proceeding upward towards the crown of the head. Chakras allow the free flow of energy, which promotes good health and vitality. If an energy blockage arises, this may cause physical ailments that correspond to the area of the blockage. By working with the chakras, a balance of energy can be maintained.

As we can see in the illustration, each chakra is also represented with its own colour. You may notice that these colours are the colours of the spectrum, each of progressively higher vibration as we move up the chakra system.

The energy systems of the subtle bodies respond to thoughts, and by using directed meditation it is possible to adjust the energy flow. With the chakras open, one is able to connect to the life force that permeates all of life, often referred to as “Prana” or “Chi”. As one begins working with these subtle energies, it is likely that they will not notice any physical sensation, however, as one continues practising, their senses will develop and they will soon be able to feel the energy moving throughout their system.

The bottom three chakras allow healing energies from the earth to enter the body and the top three chakras allow healing to enter from above. At the centre is the heart chakra that allows for balance between these two energy types.

The chakras are clearly visible in auric photography and reveal a great deal about a person. Unfortunately, to see the chakras using the naked eye is not too easy. Some lucky individuals are able to see the chakra system; others can develop their auric sight using certain exercises.

The Seven Chakras:

Root Chakra – Muldhara:

Earth, physical identity, orientation to self-preservation.

Sacral Chakra – Svadhisthana, sweetness:

Water, emotional identity, oriented to self-gratification.

Solar Plexus Chakra – Manipura, lustrous gem:

Fire, ego identity, oriented to self-definition

Heart Chakra – Anahata, unstruck, unhurt, fresh, clean:

Air, social identity, oriented to self-acceptance

Throat Chakra – Vishuddha, purification:

Sound, creative identity, oriented to self-expression

Brow Chakra – Ajna, perception:

Light, archetypal identity, orientation to self-reflection

Crown Chakra – Sahasrara, thousandfold:

Thought, universal identity, oriented to self-knowledge


Over the past hundred years, the concept of the chakras, or subtle energy centers within the body, has seized the Western imagination more than virtually any other teaching from the Yoga tradition. Yet, as with most other concepts deriving from Sanskrit sources, the West (barring a handful of scholars) has almost totally failed to come to grips with what the chakra-concept meant in its original context and how one is supposed to practice with them. This post seeks to rectify that situation to some extent. If you’re short on time, you can skip the contextual comments I’m about to make and go straight to the list of the six fundamental facts about the chakras that modern yogis don’t know.

First off, how do we define ‘chakra’? In the Tantrik traditions, from which the concept derives, chakras (Skt. cakra) are focal points for meditation within the human body, visualized as structures of energy resembling discs or flowers at those points where a number of nāḍīs (channels or meridians) converge. They are conceptual structures yet are phenomenologically based, since they tend to be located where human beings experience emotional and/or spiritual energy, and since the form in which they are visualized reflects visionary experiences had by meditators.

(Above I said that the West has so far failed to understand chakras. Let me clarify that by ‘the West’ I mean not only Euro-American culture but also the aspects of modern Indian culture that are informed by the Euro-American cultural matrix. Since at this point it is nearly impossible to find a form of yoga in India not influenced by Euro-American ideas about it, when I use the term ‘Western’ I also include most of the teachings on yoga in India today that exist in the English language.)

Okay, I’ll give it to you straight: for the most part, Western yoga understands almost nothing about the chakras that the original tradition thought was important about them. You see, if you read a book like Anodea Judith’s famous Wheels of Life or suchlike, it’s important to realize that you are not reading a work of yoga philosophy but of Western occultism, based on three main sources: 1) earlier works of Western occultism that borrow and adapt Sanskrit terms without really understanding them (like Theosophist C.W. Leadbeater’s The Chakras, 1927); 2) John Woodroffe’s flawed 1918 translation of a text on the chakras written in Sanskrit in 1577 (see below for more on this); and 3) 20th-century books by Indian yoga gurus which are themselves mostly based on sources 1) and 2). Books on the chakras based on sound comprehension of the original Sanskrit sources so far exist only in the academic world.  

‘But does that matter?’ yogis ask me. ‘I’ve benefited so much from Anodea Judith’s book and others like it, don’t take that away from me!’ I won’t and I can’t. Whatever benefit you’ve received, from whatever source, is real if you say it is.  I’m just here to tell you two things: first, that when modern Western authors on the chakras imply they are presenting ancient teachings, they’re deceiving you—but they don’t know that they are, because they can’t assess the validity of their own source materials (since they don’t read Sanskrit). Second, for those who are interested, I’m here to let you know a little bit about what yogic concepts mean in their original context (because I’m a Sanskrit scholar, and a practitioner who happens to prefer the traditional forms). Only you can assess whether that is of any benefit to you. I’m not claiming that older is intrinsically better. I’m not trying to imply there’s no spiritual value to Western occultism. I’m just approximating the historical truth in simple English words as best I can. So I’ll get on with it now: the six fundamental facts about the chakras that modern yogis don’t know.


So many! The theory of the subtle body and its energy centers called cakras (or padmas (lotuses), ādhāras, lakṣyas (focal points), etc.) comes from the tradition of Tantrik Yoga, which flourished from 600-1300 CE, and is still alive today. In mature Tantrik Yoga (after the year 900 or so), every one of the many branches of the tradition articulated a different chakra system, and some branches articulated more than one. Five-chakra systems, six-chakra systems, seven, nine, ten, twelve, twenty-one and more chakras are taught, depending on what text and what lineage you’re looking at. The seven- (or, technically, 6 + 1) chakra system that Western yogis know about is just one of many, and it became dominant around the 15th century (see point #4 below).

Now, I know what you’re thinking—‘But which system is right? How many chakras are there really?’ And that brings us to our first major misunderstanding. The chakras aren’t like organs in the physical body; they aren’t fixed facts that we can study like doctors study neural ganglia (with which the chakras were confused in the nineteenth century). The energy body (sūkshma-sharīra) is an extraordinarily fluid reality, as we should expect of anything nonphysical and supersensuous. The energy body can present, experientially speaking, with any number of energy centers, depending on the person and the yogic practice they’re performing.

Having said that, there are a few centers which are found in all systems: specifically, in the lower belly or sexual center, in the heart, and in or near the crown of the head, since these are three places in the body where humans all over the world experience both emotional and spiritual phenomena. But apart from those three, there’s a huge variety in the chakra systems we find in the original literature. One is not more ‘right’ than another, except relative to a specific practice. For example, if you’re doing a five-element practice, you use a five-chakra system (see point #6 below). If you’re internalizing the energy of six different deities, you use a six-chakra system. Duh, right? But this crucial bit of information has not yet reached Western yoga.

We’ve only just started down this rabbit hole, Alice. Wanna learn more?


This might be the most important point. English sources tend to present the chakra system as an existential fact, using descriptive language (like “the mūlādhāra chakra is at the base of the spine and it is red” and so on). But in most of the original Sanskrit sources, we are not being taught about the way things are, we are being given a specific yogic practice: we are to visualize a subtle object made of colored light, shaped like a lotus or a spinning wheel, at a specific point in the body, and then activate mantric syllables in it, for a specific purpose. When you understand this, point #1 above makes more sense. The texts are prescriptive — they tell what you ought to do to achieve a specific goal by mystical means. When the literal Sanskrit reads, in its elliptical fashion, ‘four-petaled red lotus at the base of the body’ we are supposed to understand ‘The yogī ought to visualize a four-petaled lotus . . .’ See point #5 below for more on this. 


On countless websites and in countless books, we read that the mūlādhāra chakra is associated with survival & safety, that maṇipūra chakra is associated with willpower & self-esteem, and so on. The educated yogi should know that all associations of the chakras with psychological states is a modern Western innovation that started with Carl Jung. Perhaps such associations represent experiential realities for some people (though usually not without priming), but we certainly don’t find them in the Sanskrit sources. There’s only one exception I’m aware of, and that is the 10-chakra system for yogi-musicians that I’ve done a blog post on. But in that thirteenth-century system, we do not find each chakra associated with a specific emotion or psychological state; rather, each petal of each lotus-chakra is associated with a distinct emotion or psychological state, and there seems to be no pattern by which we could create a label for the chakra as a whole.

But that’s not all. Nearly all the many associations found in Anodea Judith’s Wheels of Life have no basis in the Indian sources. Each chakra, Judith tells us, is associated with a certain bodily gland, certain bodily malfunctions, certain foods, a certain metal, a mineral, an herb, a planet, a path of yoga, a suit of the tarot, a sephira of Jewish mysticism, and an archangel of Christianity! None of these associations are found in the original sources. Judith or her teachers created them based on perceived similarities. That goes also for the essential oils and crystals that other books and websites claim correspond to each chakra. (I should note that Judith does feature some information from an original Sanskrit source [that is, the Ṣaṭ-cakra-nirūpaṇa, for which see below] under the label ‘Lotus Symbols’ for each chakra.) 

This is not to say that putting a certain kind of crystal on your belly when you’re having self-esteem issues and imagining it purifying your maṇipūra chakra might not help you feel better. Maybe it will, depending on the person. While this practice is certainly not traditional, and has not been tested over generations (which is the whole point of tradition, really), god knows there’s more on heaven and earth than is dreamt of in my rationalist brain. 

But, in my view, people should know when the pedigree of a practice is a few decades, not centuries. If a practice has value, then you don’t need to falsify its provenance, right?

Hey there—do you like this post? Do you want learn more? Then please sign up for my email list! You won’t receive many mailings, and we’ll never share your email.


The chakra system Western yogis follow is that found in a Sanskrit text written by a guy named Pūrṇānanda Yati. He completed his text (the Ṣaṭ-chakra-nirūpaṇa or ‘Explanation of the Six Chakras’, which is actually chapter six of a larger work) in the year 1577, and it was translated into English exactly 100 years ago, in 1918. 

In an earlier version of this post, I called this seven-chakra system ‘late and somewhat atypical’. But after a few days, I realized that I was mistaken—a simpler version of the same seven-chakra system is found in a thirteenth-century postscriptural text called the Śāradā-tilaka, though that text does plainly acknowledge that there are multiple chakra systems (such as systems of 12 or 16 chakras). We also find a more elaborate version of the same system in the fourteenth- or fifteenth-century Śiva-samhitā. However, most yogis (both Indian and Western) know the seven-chakra system through Pūrṇānanda’s sixteenth-century work, or rather, through the somewhat incoherent and confusing translation of it, done by John Woodroffe in 1918. Still, it’s true enough to say that this seven-chakra system has been dominant for the last four or five centuries. But it’s also true that the Westernized seven-chakra system you know is based on early-twentieth-century occultists’ interpretation of a flawed translation of a nonscriptural source. This by no means invalidates it, but rather serves to problematize its hegemony.

Note that Tantric Buddhism (e.g., of Tibet) often preserves older forms, and indeed the five-chakra system is dominant in that tradition (as well as the more fundamental three-bindu system). For a typical five-chakra system as found in classical Tantra, see page 387 of my book, Tantra Illuminated.


As far as the original authors were concerned, the main purpose of any chakra system was to function as a template for nyāsa, which means the installation of mantras and deity-energies at specific points of the subtle body. So, though millions of people are fascinated with the chakras today, almost none of those people are using them for their intended purpose. That’s okay. Again, I’m not here to make anyone wrong, just to educate the folks who are interested. 

The most outstanding features of the chakra systems in the original sources are these three: 1) that the mystical sounds of the Sanskrit alphabet are distributed across the ‘petals’ of all the chakras in the system, 2) that each chakra is associated with a specific Great Element (Earth, Water, FIre, Wind, and Space) and 3) that each chakra is associated with a specific Hindu deity or deities. This is because the chakra system is, as I said, primarily a template for nyāsa. In nyāsa (lit., ‘placing’), you visualize a specific mantric syllable in a specific location in a specific chakra in your energy body while silently intoning its sound.

Clearly, this practice is embedded in a culturally-specific context in which the sounds of the Sanskrit language are seen as uniquely powerful vibrations that can form an effective part of a mystical practice that brings about spiritual liberation or worldly benefits through magical means. Invoking the image and energy of a specific deity into a specific chakra is also culturally-specific, though if Western yogis come to understand what those deities stand for, the practice could potentially be meaningful for them as well, though probably never as meaningful as for someone who grew up with those deities as paradigmatic icons emblazoned on their subconscious minds.

The so-called Cause-deities (karana-devatās) figure largely in every chakra system. These deities form a fixed sequence: from the lowest chakra to the highest, they are Ganesh, Brahmā, Vishnu, Rudra, Īśvara, Sadāśiva, and Bhairava, with the first and last of these often not appearing, depending on the number of chakras. The last deity in the list of Cause-deities is never the ultimate deity of the given system, for that deity (whoever it is) is enthroned in the sahasrāra or thousand-petalled lotus on the crown of the head (which technically is not a chakra, since chakras by definition are pierced by Kuṇḍalinī in her ascent or descent, whereas the sahasrāra is her final destination and home). Therefore, Bhairava (the most esoteric form of Shiva) is only included in the list of Cause-deities when he is transcended by the Goddess, the latter being the ultimate deity in many of these systems.


This is simpler than it sounds. You’ve been told that the seed-mantra (bīja) of the mūlādhāra chakra is LAM. Well, it’s not. Not in any Sanskrit source, not even in Pūrṇānanda’s somewhat garbled syncretic account. And the mantra of svādhiṣṭhāna chakra is not VAM. Wait, what?

It’s simple: LAM (rhymes with ‘thumb’) is the seed-mantra of the Earth element, which in most chakra visualization practices is installed in the mūlādhāra. VAM is the seed-mantra of the Water element, which is installed in svādhiṣṭhāna (at least, in the seven-chakra system you know about). And so on: RAM is the syllable for Fire, YAM for Wind, and HAM for Space. (All these bījas rhyme with ‘thumb’; though I should note that in esoteric Tantrik Yoga, the elemental bījas actually have different vowel sounds which are thought to be much more powerful.)

So the main point is that the fundamental mantras associated with the first five chakras on every website you can Google actually do not belong to those chakras per se, but rather to the five Elements installed in them. This is important to know if you ever want to install one of those elements in a different place. “Gasp! I can do that?” Totally. In fact, in different Tantrik lineages, we find the Elements installed in very different places. For example, the Saiddhāntika lineage installed Earth in the heart chakra. What do you think might be the effect on your relationships of always installing the Wind element in the heart center? (Remember, YAM is the mantra of Air/Wind, not of the anāhata chakra, whose intrinsic mantra is actually OM.) D’you ever notice that modern American yogis have really unstable relationships? Could that possibly be connected to repeatedly invoking Wind on the level of the heart? Nahhh….. (I can be funny now because only a small percentage of my readers have made it down this far.)  So maybe you want to install some Earth in the heart sometime, cuz grounding is good for your heart. In that case, it’s kinda handy to know that LAM is the Earth element mantra, not the mūlādhāra-chakra mantra.

Furthermore, most of the geometric figures associated with the chakras today also properly belong to the Elements. Earth is traditionally represented by a (yellow) square, Water by a (silvery) crescent moon, Fire by a downward-pointing (red) triangle, Wind by a hexagram or six-pointed star, and Space by a circle. So when you see those figures inscribed in illustrations of the chakras, you now know that they actually are representations of those respective Elements, not of a geometry inherent in the chakra itself.

This brings me to my last point: even a Sanskrit source can be confused. For example, in Pūrṇānanda’s 16th-century text that is the basis of the popular modern chakra system, the five Elements are installed in the first five chakras of a seven-chakra system. But this doesn’t really work, because in all the classical systems, Space element is installed at the crown of the head, since that is where the yogī experiences an expansive opening into infinite spaciousness. Space is the element that merges into the infinite, so it has to be at or near the crown. I would speculate that Pūrṇānanda placed Space at the throat chakra because he lived at a time of increasing dogmatic adherence to the received tradition without critical reflection (a trend which sadly has continued), and the tradition he received was a Kaula one in which the classical Cause-deities got shoved down to make room for later, higher deities (specifically Bhairava and the Goddess), and the elements were uncritically kept fused to the deities and chakras with which they were previously associated. (Having said that, the fact that Pūrṇānanda was drawing on Kaula sources is not obvious, because instead of enthroning the Goddess at the sahasrāra as we would expect in a Kaula seven-chakra system, we find there Paramaśiva, possibly due to the influence of Vedānta. See the questions and answers in the comments section for more on this.) 

We’ve barely scratched the surface of this subject. No, I’m not kidding. It’s really complex, as you can gather by taking a look at the scholarly literature, like Dory Heilijgers-Seelen’s work, or Gudrun Bühnemann’s. It takes uncommon patience and focus to even read such work, let alone produce it. So here’s what I hope will be the result of this post: some humility. A few less claims to authority when it comes to really esoteric subjects. Maybe a few less yoga teachers trying to tell their students what the chakras are all about. Heck, I’m humbled by the complexity of the original sources, and that’s with fourteen years of Sanskrit under my belt.

This is still mostly uncharted territory. So when it comes to the chakras, don’t claim you know. Tell your yoga students that every book on the chakras presents only one possible model. Virtually nothing written in English is really authoritative for practitioners of yoga. So why not hold more gently the beliefs you’ve acquired about yoga, even while you keep learning? Let’s admit we don’t fully understand these ancient yoga practices yet; and instead of seeking to be an authority on some oversimplified version of them, you can invite yourself and your students to look more clearly, more honestly, more carefully, and more non-judgmentally at their own inner experience.

Meditation, Visualization and Your Emotions

Emotions play an important role in life. They help you evaluate situations and respond to threats and opportunities. However, the mechanism is somewhat imperfect. Therefore, you do not always get the right results. Sometimes you overreact, sometimes under react, and in both cases you lose focus and balance. At times, you may also confront situations with inappropriate responses and expose yourself to further problems. On the positive side, emotions make you human. They help you feel things and experience the richness of life. It is one redeeming feature about emotions.

One of the common suggestions about controlling emotions is that when problems arise you should think rationally, rather than give in to your emotions by counting numbers or taking a deep breath. Theoretically, those responses are very appropriate, but you know that you cannot always do it. When emotions arise, you seem to lose control over your rationality and let them out. You may feel guilty afterwards for what happened, but it does not guarantee that it will not happen again.

In real life situations, emotions are common human experience. People do not feel peace until they let them out and say or do according to their bidding. It is certainly not a sign of weakness. It is what it is, human nature. We are wired that way. There are two parts in the human brain, the primitive brain, which is the seat of emotions and instincts, and the evolved one which is responsible for most executive functions.

In all situations, invariably it is the primitive brain which responds first. When a problem or a threat presents itself, your primitive brain reacts first and engages your whole attention to the perceived problem or threat by releasing chemicals into your bloodstream and invoking in you strong emotions. It does it with mechanical precision and most efficiently, and gives you little or no opportunity to think about the situation or process the information.

Therefore, it is practically impossible not to feel any emotions or to suppress them. Besides, it may not be wise to do, since they are vital to your survival. The best way to deal with your emotions is to feel them, know them, understand them, and become familiar with them. You should let them rise and fall, without damaging your inner poise. It is a tough call, but it can be practiced.

Think of the ocean. Can you imagine an ocean without waves? The same is true with your mind. You cannot imagine a mind without emotions, except in deep sleep. Waves disturb the surface of the ocean only. Deep inside, the ocean is calm. The same should be the case with your mind and emotions. Emotions may rise and fall in the surface of your mind, but deep inside you should remain calm. Here are a few suggestions to cultivate the oceanic inner poise, without suppressing your emotions.

1. Practice meditation. It gives you an opportunity to observe your own thoughts and emotions and become familiar with them. Regular practice will help you become more introspective, observant, mindful, and sensitive to your own thoughts and feelings and notice them when there are major shifts in your moods or how you feel about yourself or others in different situations.

2. Label your emotions. When emotions arise try to identify them and label them. Many times emotions linger in your consciousness, which you may not notice because you have grown accustomed to them. Many people do not pay attention to themselves and cannot identify their own emotions. They become so engrossed with the life outside or winning the approval and acceptance of others that they ignore their own feelings. It is important to know your emotions and acknowledge them when they arise.

3. Practice visualization. Visualize situations that trouble you or disturb you. Mentally play out various scenarios to see how you can deal with them so that you can gain control over your responses and remain undisturbed in situations that normally tend to destabilize you in real life. It will also help you break your habitual mental responses and routine behavior, and learn new ways to think and act, and correct your behavior and attitude.

4. Cultivate detachment. The things that you love most are the ones that can potentially cause much emotional turmoil. Your attachments make you vulnerable to emotions. Therefore practice detachment and learn to let go of things so that when you are drawn into unpleasant situations you can become a passive observer of your own mind and consciously experience your emotions without being disturbed by them. The best way to cultivate detachment is to know your likes and dislikes and maintain a healthy distance from both of them.

5. Broaden your thinking and outlook. An open mind helps you keep your negativity under control. Consider all viewpoints, possibilities and alternatives before rushing to judgment. When you view life from a broader perspective, you will learn to absorb a lot of information without being disturbed by it and grow comfortable with the conflicts, inconsistencies, instability, loss and gain, and contradictions of life.

6. Keep your mind clean. Your mind has many demons of hunger and thirst. If you are not disciplined, they will let all types of thoughts and intentions enter it and potentially disturb your peace. It is important to be true to yourself and be honest with yourself. You should be clear about your intentions and basic morality and stay away from wrong paths and questionable choices. Practice right thinking, right perception, right awareness, and right discernment, which will lead you in the right direction.

7. Keep smiling. A smile, even an artificial one, can change your moods. It can lift your mind and instantly change your emotional states. Bring cheer into your life by forcing yourself to smile frequently. Even if it is an artificial smile, do not mind. Keep smiling at every opportunity. People usually reciprocate a smile with a smile. When you smile, you will radiate a lot of positive energy and evoke similar emotions in others. It will create a very energetic and cheerful atmosphere around you.

Suppressing your emotions is not the right choice, neither ignoring them nor escaping from them. One can drown oneself in sorrow or drink oneself to numbness. They are destructive choices, which will create further emotional problems. The right way to deal with your emotions is to let them do their job and not feel disturbed by them. Accept your emotions as an integral part of your consciousness and behavior. Try to know them and become familiar with them. Express positive emotions as often as possible to experience the richness of life. Use the power of meditation to gain right knowledge about yourself and your emotions. Meditation is the art of thinking, or not thinking. With its practice you become self-aware, thoughtful, observant, stable and peaceful. It does not matter where you live, what you do, or which faith you practice. If you are not practicing it for any reason, you are probably missing a great opportunity to experience peace and stability.

What is the best way to change your thinking and life through meditation?

Medication is basically Vedic Hinduism origin which describes the person’s state of powerful concentration on an object of alertness and thought. In this procedure, a person tries to change his or her thought inward. Mostly people are nowadays very interested in performing these types of activities. Meditation is very popular in eastern religion but nowadays western people also love to perform this activity. Meditation is now part of western culture and western people like this.

Mostly people think that if they will perform medication then they can easily concentrate their mind on God. And if they will focus their mind then it will help them in their personal development. With the help of meditation, they can get peace of mind and if they have peace of mind they will be healthier and live a peaceful life.

In America, many people perform meditation. There are different forms of meditation performed by people. If you want to do meditation then there is one form that can be performed by anyone. According to Time magazine, American wants such a process that can be used by them and this is considered as an initial phase of meditation. But people know how to use it but they don’t know how to initiate this process.

Different persons belonging to Hinduism wrote books on meditation. The Power Of Meditation

 is a book written by an unknown author long ago. This book is based on meditation for modern life. If you are interested in meditation then you must read this book. Go to market purchase this book and read it carefully. You get a lot of knowledge about meditation and you can get the result in this modern life.

When a person starts something new in his or her life then he wants to know about the success of work.

People have so many lingering questions and they need answers to those questions. People have so many hopes and doubts when they do something new and change and start doing meditation and they think that with the help of meditation they will enlighten their way. People think that meditation is like an exercise and they will perform it regularly for getting better results. People perform this exercise and they take it normal and perform meditation for getting peace of mind.

When you started doing meditation, then you have so many positive and negative things in your mind but when you will do this process then you forget all those negative and positive things and you have a clean slate.

For this process, you must concentrate and observe your breath. If you want to initiate the process of meditation then inhale and exhale your breath deeply and keep doing this again and again and get excellent results at the end of the day.

If when you will try to do this then your mind will be scattered, just concentrate on your breath and focus on your task. Meditation is a game of concentration, if you think that you are not able to concentrate then practice this process again and again. Also, I recommended you read this book Feng Shui Fortunes it helped me a lot.

What is Walking Meditation and is it Good for Health?

People think that meditation is always performed in a closed room where no one can disturb them. They think that they are sitting alone in that room and just concentrating and focusing without any physical movement. They imagine things by closing their eyes in silence and relaxing their body only their mind will work. No physical movement during meditation just sit and performs this process.

If we define meditation then it is a skill or art which helps you in exploring yourself. With the help of the meditation process, you will discover yourself. It is a method of finding out yourself and the many realities of your life. It is a very excellent art and you must know how you will perform meditation.

When you are planning for meditation then you need discipline and full mental concentration. If you are thinking that you will learn the process of meditation from any book or website and when you will perform this then you will get 100 percent results. But it takes some time for getting better results. Basically, it is a process of modifying your consciousness. There are a specific set of rules and procedures which are defined for performing meditation. The success of your meditation totally depends on the way and the rules you will follow for meditation.

There are different types of procedures for performing meditation. Walking meditation is considered one of the old and traditional procedures. It is different from regular meditation. If you look at different forms of meditation then you know that in most of them there is no physical activity. In walking meditation, you just need to move and walk. In this type of meditation, you make yourself active. As you know that meditation is the process of concentration and focusing so you just need to walk and engage your mind in order to get positive results. Another benefit of walking meditation is that it is a physical activity that you perform daily and it helps you in improving your health.

For walking meditation, you have no need to find out separate and quiet room just go out and start your walking meditation. If you think that you cannot do walking meditation in crowded or noisy places then it is wrong. Meditation experts recommended these types of places because you can better access the process of meditation. Another important thing in meditation is you just concentrate and focused and don’t allow the people and outer world to disturb you and scatter your mind. When you are walking then you are watching the people walking around you and hear the people talking about different things but you just concentrate.

Basically, the purpose of walking meditation is to create a balance between your inner world and your outer world at the same time. Walking meditation gives you a true sense of awareness. In this meditation, you will not only discover yourself but you are also connected with your outside world. When you will achieve this then you will get the answers to your questions. By this process, you will solve so many problems and complexities of your life.

Control yourself through Meditation

In hustle and bustle of life, our mind and body exhaust and resign to the daily pressure and stress we face. Physical illnesses may be treated with medicines but the soul, which controls our morale, motivation, and happiness, cannot be cured with scientific measures. To evaluate your emotions and bring harmony to feelings, you must practice meditation along with other tasks of your life. It relaxes your nerves and muscles and brings peace to your inner structure, which allows greater efficiency in other activities.

Although it’s an intangible mechanism, still there are some themes that are followed for each distinct technique of meditation. It starts with understanding your own self, the pattern of nature, and how both work coherently to bring peace. So instead of beginning the meditation practices randomly read about the philosophy and underlying rules of that particular activity. Meditation for Relaxation

Once you start believing in unseen structures, you get to step closer to the higher purpose of life. This allows you to stay composed regardless of the present condition of your life. Meditation enhances control over feelings and allows you to utilize them for your greater benefit. The moment you become aware of your inner personality traits, you can behave in a more optimistic and constructive manner thus nurturing your social relationships. When your mind becomes healthy, it casts positive impacts on your body and you feel active and competent than before.

God has created this universe maintaining a perfect balance in everything. All-natural elements have energy in them that keeps them functional. The human body also has energy reservoirs but we consume a large amount in carrying out our daily activities. Moreover, our speedy life spoils our peace of mind hinders us from understanding the spiritual details of our own self.

The meditation process requires that you focus your energy and attention on one place and then use it as your power to overshadow your fears and disruption. The division of your mental capability renders disruption and personality disorders followed by pessimistic thoughts that ruin your career. The tenure of the meditation process depends on the nature of the spiritual ailment.

It can help you control your blood pressure and lessen your anxiety. You can also cure your immune system, which also helps you to maintain resistance against drugs and other addictions.

Through this self-evaluation process, you can quantify your intangible feelings and get aware of the root cause of any disorder. The diagnosis then gives way to healing and curing the soul that ultimately strengthens your personality. By getting aware of your inner powers and how these can contribute to the well-being of society, you are in a better position to achieve your goals. In the ups and downs of life, you often come across situations where you lose hope or temper and are inclined toward bad ways. Grow your Self-Confidence

At these crucial moments, it is imperative that you are clear about your vision of life and can cope with emotional disasters in a more rational manner. Meditation teaches you how to grow poise and calm in your mind to counter-attack such optimism in life.

What is Buddhism Meditation and Seek out Life Meaning?

People are always in search of finding out their inner peace and also the peace of soul and you find this with the help of meditation. Life becomes more frustrated and uncomfortable because of so many changes in the world and life. Meditation helps you to find out the realities of life and also accept those realities with happiness, not as a burden.

Different cultures have their own style of meditation. It totally depends on the religion first and then the culture in which you are living. Some people think that along with culture and religion, people are also important. If come in subcontinent Asia then Buddhism is the most popular religion who gives importance to meditations. They think that meditation plays an important role when you want to find out the meaning of life. They think that meditation is very important for life’s enlightenment.

In Buddhism philosophy, meditation is an important point of their religion for spending proper and meaningful life

Basically, meditation belongs to Hinduism so Buddhists know the reason behind all the problems in this world. If you know the reasons behind all this suffering in the world it is not important, actually, the thing is you must solve these problems and take mankind out of this plague. The basic purpose of Buddhism meditation is to save mankind from the fear of pain and distress. For saving mankind from problems and pain you must know the reasons. The suffering and pains are due to human endless desires and expectations which they have from people around them. Not only have the people around you but you had so many complaints from the world and sometimes from your life also. When your demands and expectations will not fulfill then you will become frustrated so don’t expect from the world.

Some people think that meditation is very important in getting yourself out of tension and stress. It helps you in watching different things under the light of reality. It teaches you that life is not as simple as you think and it always changes sphere. If you want to live healthy and peaceful life then you must know how you can control your desire and cravings that always irritate you. You can get peace of mind only when you will realize the realities of life and know the fact that life is not as complicated as you are thinking. With the help of meditation, you can live your life fully and can easily enjoy the freedom of living by controlling your emotions and desires.

Meditation plays an important role in getting inner peace. It is a very excellent tool for finding your peace of mind with body relaxation and then preserving it. It will help you a lot in getting out of stress when you are frustrated and the outer environment is not comfortable. It gives you and your mind the right direction and motivation for keeping yourself on the right path and keeping you determined on the truth. It also helps you and teaches you how you can spend a healthy and normal life.

Guided Meditations for Hinduism

Hinduism is both and ancient religion and a way of life, with 1 billion followers, including 80 per cent of India’s population. Its origins can be traced to the ‘Hindu synthesis’ which developed in India between 500 BCE and 300 CE. Hinduism is also now the dominant way of life in South Asia. The central religious text is the Veda, yet Hinduism is characterised by extremely diverse beliefs and practices.


As for directions on how to meditate and what to meditate upon, such issues must be taken up directly with a qualified spiritual teacher. Meditation is an intensely personal matter; only a genuine spiritual teacher can accurately gauge the student’s personal tendencies and direct the student’s mind accordingly.

Further, spirituality is caught, not taught. A genuine spiritual teacher ignites the flame of spirituality in the student by the power of his or her own attainment: the student’s candle is lit by the teacher’s flame. Our candles cannot be lit by books any more than they can be lit by unqualified teachers who speak religion without living it. True spirituality is transmitted: only pure, unselfish teachers who have achieved some level of spiritual awakening can enliven our own dormant flame.

That said, some basic guidelines can be given: any concept of God–whether formless or with form–that appeals to us is helpful and good. We can think of God as being present either outside of ourselves or inside. Ramakrishna, however, recommended meditating upon God within, saying “the heart is a splendid place for meditation.” Repetition of any name of God that appeals to us is good, so is repeating the holy syllable “Om.” It’s helpful to have a regular time for meditation in order to create a habit; it’s also helpful to have a regular place for meditation that is quiet, clean, and tranquil.


There are various techniques of meditation in Hinduism. Hinduism has a long history

in spirituality and its whole history is created around it. Over time, various techniques of meditation were invented here, and let us look at various types of meditation in Hinduism and learn how to perform them to enhance our spirituality.

Following are the 10 meditations in Hinduism:

Mantra Meditation

This is one of the most prominent types of meditation in Hinduism. What happens here is one chant of the mantras. Mantras are the verses that are believed to have a special power within them. In this meditation, people chant the mantra and also focus on it. This type of meditation has to be one of the, if not the oldest meditations in Hinduism. Sages in ancient Hindu society used this technique to get boons and blessings from the gods.

Tantra Meditation

This is a special kind of meditation that many people may not know about but is an amazing technique. In Tantra Meditation one keeps everything calm, even the mind of the individual needs to be calm and needs to focus on spirituality. The key activity one needs to do to perform this Tantra meditation is to focus their concentration on the sound produced by the heart chakra. Pain and pleasure are the keys to this meditation, and one needs to analyze them.

Chakra Meditation

Chakras are the powerhouse of our body and from there energy flows all around the body. They are all located between the base of the spine to the top of the head. There is a meditation in Hinduism where the entire meditation revolves around these powerhouses. There are various mantras that when chanted are believed to channel the power of these Chakra points.

Spiritual Meditation

Spiritual Meditation is one of the popular meditations in Hinduism that is getting more popular day by day. This is a meditation that focuses on spirituality. Spiritual Meditation enables one to be closer to God and it is taken as such. Silence is the key element in this meditation, and one needs to accept the silence by focusing on the breath.

Transcendental Meditation

Transcendental Meditation uses its power to go into a powerful state of awareness. This is also a type of meditation in Hinduism where the power of awareness is the key aspect. To go into that state people can also use the power of Mantra, but this is quite different from the Mantra meditation in Hinduism. Transcendental Meditation goes into the unadulterated state of awareness through the power of rest, calmness, mantra, and getting into the elevated state of existence.

Yoga Meditation

Third eye meditation

Physically humans have only two eyes, but yogic science teaches that we have a third eye that is located in between our eyebrows and is present in the form of energy and not in the form of an organ. In third eye meditation in Hinduism, one focuses their energy at this point and begins their meditation.

Sound meditation

This is a meditation that is focused on a certain type of sound. What happens is that you remain near the source of sound and focus your energy and concentration all on that sound. Generally, for this type of meditation in Hinduism music, mantra or vajan are used as the source of focus.

Kundalini Meditation

This is one of the most advanced forms of meditation in Hinduism. The only individual who has spent years dedicating their lives to the path of yoga and meditation try to perform this meditation and even a few of them succeed in awakening the Kundalini energy.

Kundalini energy is located at the back of humans and is a very dormant form of energy, but it is considered very powerful. When Kundalini’s energy is activated, one moves towards the path of enlightenment.

Gazing meditation

This is a unique form of meditation in Hinduism. While most meditation techniques requirement of closing the eyes while this type of meditation requires keeping the eyes open. What happens in this meditation is that one keeps their eyes open and focuses on an external point in the surrounding. Then with the object as the center of focus concentrate and fix your energy at that point. One can use the object of their desire to concentrate. However, using the objects like idols of gods, and spirituality will enhance this process.

Self-inquiry Meditation

This is the form of meditation in Hinduism where one questions his own beliefs and their position in the universe. The way we act, and the way we think all are based on something, on our memories, and experiences. Also, the world which we most commonly use is the source of our ego, dissatisfaction, arrogance, and so on.

However, only some have dared to look beyond and see what the true meaning of I is, and is it even what we have been assuming for all these years? To question Ower selves and find true I is the self-inquiry meditation in Hinduism.

Your Guide to Mantra Meditation

Mantra meditation is a powerful practice that has been used for centuries to calm the mind, deepen self-awareness, and connect with a sense of inner peace. Rooted in ancient Eastern traditions, mantra meditation involves the repetitive chanting or silent repetition of a specific sound, word, or phrase called a mantra. This rhythmic repetition creates a meditative state that allows us to go beyond the chatter of our thoughts and tap into a deeper level of consciousness.

So, join us as we embark on this enlightening exploration of mantra meditation, and may the repetition of sacred sounds guide us to a deeper understanding of ourselves and the world around us.

Origins and History of Mantra Meditation

Mantra meditation has a rich history that spans across various ancient cultures and spiritual traditions. Its origins can be traced back to ancient Eastern practices, particularly within Hinduism and Buddhism. Let’s explore the fascinating origins and historical development of mantra meditation.


Mantra meditation finds its roots in the Vedic period of ancient India, which dates back thousands of years. The Vedas, ancient sacred texts of Hinduism, contain hymns and chants that were recited as part of religious rituals. These recitations involved the repetition of specific sounds and words believed to invoke divine energies and connect the practitioner with higher realms of consciousness. These mantras were seen as potent tools for spiritual transformation, protection, and healing.


Mantra meditation also holds a significant place within Buddhism. Siddhartha Gautama, the founder of Buddhism, practiced intense meditation and discovered the power of mantras during his quest for enlightenment. The Buddhist tradition incorporates various mantras, the most well-known being the mantra “Om Mani Padme Hum,” which is associated with the bodhisattva of compassion, Avalokiteshvara. Buddhist practitioners use mantras to focus the mind, cultivate inner peace, and generate positive qualities such as compassion, wisdom, and mindfulness.

Tibetan Buddhism

In Tibetan Buddhism, mantra meditation plays a central role in spiritual practices. Tibetan Buddhists believe that certain mantras possess inherent spiritual power and reciting them can purify negative karma, protect from harm, and accelerate the spiritual journey. The use of mantras, particularly in the form of repetitive chanting, is prevalent in Tibetan Buddhist rituals and ceremonies.

Beyond Hinduism and Buddhism

While mantra meditation originated within Hinduism and Buddhism, its influence has transcended these specific traditions. Mantras have found their way into various spiritual practices worldwide, adapted and integrated into different cultures and belief systems. In contemporary times, mantra meditation has gained popularity beyond religious contexts, with individuals from diverse backgrounds embracing its transformative potential for personal growth, stress reduction, and overall well-being.

The historical development of mantra meditation reflects its universal appeal and the recognition of its profound effects on the mind, body, and spirit. Today, practitioners from different walks of life continue to explore and benefit from the ancient practice of mantra meditation, seeking solace, insight, and a deeper connection to themselves and the divine.

Choosing and Using Mantras

Choosing the right mantra for your meditation practice is essential. Explore different mantras, ranging from traditional Sanskrit mantras to personal affirmations, and select one that resonates with your intentions and goals. Seek guidance from a meditation teacher or spiritual advisor to find a mantra that aligns with your unique needs and aspirations.

Mantras carry vibrational energy and have rich cultural and spiritual significance. Understand the power of sound in mantra meditation and delve into the origins and symbolism of specific mantras. While mantras have traditional meanings, their interpretation can also be personal and subjective. Connect with the layers of meaning that resonate with you on a deep level.

Proper pronunciation and intonation of mantras are crucial to harness their intended vibrations. Offer guidance on phonetic pronunciation, providing examples and audio references when possible. Remember that mastering the pronunciation takes practice and patience, so dedicate yourself to consistent refinement.

Incorporating mantras into your meditation practice enhances focus and depth. Establish a meditation routine that suits your lifestyle, create a serene environment, and set intentions for your practice. Decide whether to chant the mantra aloud or repeat it silently in your mind, choosing the approach that feels most comfortable to you. Start with shorter sessions and gradually increase the duration as you become more experienced. Maintain a mindful focus on the mantra, gently bringing your attention back whenever your mind wanders.

Getting Started with Mantra Meditation

A. Preparing for Your Meditation Session:

•             Set aside dedicated time for your meditation practice, free from distractions.

•             Find a quiet and peaceful space where you can comfortably sit and focus.

•             Take a few moments to calm your mind and cultivate a sense of relaxation before you begin.

B. Creating a Calm and Conducive Environment:

•             Declutter your meditation space and create a clean and serene atmosphere.

•             Consider using soft lighting, candles, or incense to enhance the ambiance.

•             Play gentle background music or nature sounds if they help you relax and concentrate.

C. Sitting Comfortably and Maintaining Good Posture:

•             Choose a comfortable seating position that allows you to sit with a straight back.

•             Use a meditation cushion, yoga mat, or chair to support your posture.

•             Relax your body while maintaining an upright and alert posture, ensuring that your spine is aligned.

D. Focusing on the Breath before Introducing the Mantra:

•             Begin by taking a few deep breaths, inhaling and exhaling slowly and deeply.

•             Observe the natural rhythm of your breath, bringing your attention to the sensation of each inhalation and exhalation.

•             Allow your mind to settle and become present, anchoring your awareness in the present moment.

E. Chanting the Mantra and Cultivating Concentration:

•             When you feel centered and focused, gently introduce the chosen mantra.

•             Chant the mantra aloud or silently repeat it in your mind with each breath.

•             Maintain a steady rhythm and immerse yourself in the vibrations and meaning of the mantra.

•             If your mind wanders, gently bring your attention back to the mantra, using it as a focal point for concentration.

As you embark on your mantra meditation practice, follow these steps to create a conducive environment, prepare your body and mind, and establish a steady focus on the chosen mantra. Remember to approach your practice with patience, openness, and a non-judgmental attitude. With regularity and dedication, mantra meditation can become a transformative tool for cultivating inner peace, clarity, and spiritual growth.

Exploring the Benefits of Mantra Meditation

Mantra meditation offers a wide range of benefits that positively impact various aspects of our lives. Here are some key benefits of mantra meditation:

1.            Reduces Stress and Anxiety: Mantra meditation helps calm the mind and relax the body, reducing stress and anxiety levels. The rhythmic repetition of the mantra creates a soothing effect, promoting a sense of inner peace and tranquility.

2.            Enhances Focus and Concentration: By providing a point of focus, mantra meditation improves concentration and enhances mental clarity. Regular practice strengthens the ability to sustain attention and stay present in the moment, leading to improved productivity and performance in daily activities.

3.            Cultivates Emotional Well-being: Mantra meditation promotes emotional well-being by helping to regulate emotions and reduce negative thoughts. It creates a space for self-reflection, allowing individuals to observe their thoughts and emotions without judgment, leading to greater emotional resilience and a balanced state of mind.

4.            Deepens Self-Awareness and Self-Discovery: Mantra meditation invites introspection and self-exploration, enabling individuals to gain insights into their inner world. Through the repetition of the mantra, one can observe their thoughts, emotions, and patterns of behavior, leading to a deeper understanding of oneself and fostering personal growth.

5.            Promotes Physical Health: The relaxation response triggered by mantra meditation has been associated with various physical health benefits. It can lower blood pressure, reduce heart rate, and alleviate symptoms of stress-related conditions. Regular practice also boosts the immune system and improves overall well-being.

6.            Connects to Spirituality and Higher Consciousness: Mantra meditation has deep roots in spiritual traditions and can serve as a pathway to connect with one’s spiritual essence. The repetition of sacred sounds or words can facilitate a sense of transcendence and foster a deeper connection with higher consciousness.

7.            Enhances Mindfulness and Present-Moment Awareness: Mantra meditation cultivates mindfulness by anchoring the mind to the present moment. It helps develop a non-judgmental awareness of one’s thoughts, sensations, and surroundings, fostering a greater sense of clarity and acceptance.

8.            Promotes Better Sleep: Regular mantra meditation practice can improve sleep quality by reducing racing thoughts, promoting relaxation, and easing anxiety. It can help individuals attain a peaceful state of mind before bedtime, leading to more restful and rejuvenating sleep.

Overall, mantra meditation offers a multitude of benefits for our mental, emotional, and physical well-being. Whether you seek stress reduction, improved focus, self-discovery, spiritual connection, or overall health improvement, mantra meditation can be a powerful practice to incorporate into your daily life.

Mantra Meditation – The Benefits and the Methods


What Are Mantras

First, we start with the definition of mantra. Mantra is a Sanskrit word derived from two roots: man (meaning “mind” or “to think”) and trai meaning to “protect”, to “free from”, or “instrument/tool”. Therefore, mantras are tools of the mind, or tools to free the mind.

Some mantras have a literal meaning and can be translated, but most of them, according to tradition, derive their value mostly from their sound quality. Some are short, one-syllable mantras; others are long, composed of many words.

What Is Mantra Meditation

How does mantra meditation work?

Sometimes the mantra is recited; at other times it is listened to. Sometimes it is repeated fast; at other times slow. Sometimes it is simply repeated by itself, and at other times in connection to concentration on the breathing, certain feelings, chakras, visualizations or abstract concepts.

What is the purpose of the mantra during meditation?

First, the mantra works as an object of focus. It is a toy to keep the monkey-mind busy, and allow it to become more calm and centered. In this sense, it works just like focusing on your breath or any other meditation object.

Second, the mantra is a tool for the transformation of consciousness. This is an aspect of mantra meditaiton that is slightly more esoteric, so it may not appeal to all readers. The teaching is that every sound, every vibration, has a certain quality to it, and is able to produce different states of mind and consciousness when repeated for a long period of time..


The Transformative Power of Sound

You may be asking yourself, “What’s so special about repeating a word, anyway? Why is it considered a powerful tool for meditation?”.

Sound is vibration. And all the cells in your body are vibrating. Everything in the universe is vibrating, and each has its own rhythm. Your thoughts and feelings are, indeed, vibrations in your body and your consciousness.

Sound patterns also affect the water in your body, your hormones secretion, cognition, behavior, and psychological well-being.

Looked at in this way, your mind—your psyche—is a collection of patterns, each vibrating at its own peculiar frequency, speed, and volume. What the mystics and yogis of yore discovered is that by sustaining a particular sound vibration for a long time, the nature of the mind and body can be somewhat transformed.

This can be used to change your emotional states—like overcoming anxiety, soothing pain, uplifting your moods, etc. Or it can also be used to access deeper states of consciousness, control the mind, and go into samadhi.

Any musician or filmmaker will tell you of the power that sound has to induce/evoke moods, thoughts, and emotions. If listening to a song can change your mood and even help heal your body, imagine the power of programming a specific sound into your mind, by repeating it thousands of times with care and attention!

Sound, rhythm and speech have profound effects on your body, thoughts, and emotions. Mantra meditation is the use of these three elements with the purpose of purifying, pacifying and transforming your mind and heart.

Thus the mantra, being an instrument of the mind, can help you create profound changes in your body and psyche, and produce altered states of consciousness. Mantra meditation is a method of rotation of consciousness around a sound, amplifying it for maximum effect. In the Yoga contemplative tradition, mantra meditation is often said to be the easiest and safest method.

And apparently, mantra can also calm down those experiencing a life crisis…

Mantra Replaces Thinking

At any given moment, our attention can be dwelling on only one object. Even when we say we are multitasking, what we are actually doing is switching objects of attention very quickly – which is why multitasking is taxing and ineffective.

For meditation, the implication is pretty simple: in every moment that you are paying full attention to the mantra, you are not disturbed by any other thoughts, memories, or sensations. If you are able to continuously string together the ending of one mantra repetition to the beginning of the next, you’ll remain in that beautiful state for the duration of your meditation.

A mantra replaces 10,000 different thoughts by one thought – a thought that gives peace and awareness. It allows you to collect your scattered attention, which is spread thin all over the place, and unify it, thus empowering it.

Of course, the meditation process is the same with other objects of concentration, such as breathing or a visualization. The advantage with a mantra, however, is that it easily overrides mental speech, which is the predominant form of conscious thinking for most people.

Another advantage is that the rhythmic nature of mantra helps override those pesky songs that sometimes play continuously in our mind during meditation—which is something that doesn’t happen so easily in other forms of meditation.

how mantra chanting improves concentration, well-being and resilience to negative inputs.

Mantras for Meditation (How to Choose)

Deciding which mantra to use depends first on your approach towards meditation – whether secular or spiritual. That approach will also affect the results you will get from the practice.

Some mantras, however, are quite universal and can be used with both approaches. Examples are the Sanskrit mantras om and so ham.

Secular approach

In this approach, meditation is seen as a tool, an exercise designed to bring you better health, performance, relaxation or personal growth. You don’t necessarily believe in anything spiritual – be it God, enlightenment, soul, or life after death. Or maybe you do believe, but want to keep your meditation practice separate from that.

In this case, you can choose a mantra from your own language. It can be a word or a short sentence that carries a message you want to imbue into your psyche.

Here are some guidelines I suggest for picking a word:

•             The meaning is the most important. Choose a word/sentence that represents something you want to develop more in yourself, feel more, or connect to. It could be love, peace, freedom, awareness, light, courage, etc.

•             The sound of the word needs to speak to you. The only way to realize this is by repeating it for a few minutes, and observe how you feel before and after.

•             Avoid words that have dubious meanings or possible negative connotations.

You can try a few mantras before you decide on which one most speaks to you—based on the meaning and sound. For example, if you want a mantra for anxiety, you might enjoy working with om, which has a calming effect.

Once chosen, it is better to always use the same mantra, so its effects really build up.

Spiritual approach

If you meditate with a spiritual goal or purpose in mind, the way to choose a mantra is different. You may consider that each word contains its own “energy”, that became impregnated into it through the way it has been repetitively used by other people. Hence it makes sense to pick up a traditional mantra – a word or sound that has been used by spiritual seekers for centuries, with noble attitude and intention.

In this case, it makes little sense to translate a mantra. You are better off using the original word in the language in which it was conceived/discovered (usually Sanskrit, Pali, Hebrew, Aramaic or Tibetan). Also, the correct pronunciation and intonation of the mantra is very important, since we are aiming at replicating that specific sound vibration.

Once you know what you resonate with best, then you may either:

Find a teacher/master of that tradition – someone you respect – and ask him or her to suggest a mantra for you. Depending on the tradition, a mantra master will have practiced extensively different mantras, know the type of vibration of each one, and will be able to select one for you based on your specific goals and temperaments.

Research the mantras used in that particular path, try each one for a few days, and then select the one that most gives you what you are looking for.

When repeating a mantra as a spiritual practice, try to simultaneously contemplate the meaning or state represented by that mantra. In a way, that’s what makes mantra meditation more than a glorified affirmation practice.

The mantra is like a password, a key, to a certain state of consciousness or universal principle you want to experience.

In this approach, you are advised to keep the mantra secret. Even if it is a mantra that is here on the internet, and thousands practice it. The simple reason is: sacred is secret. Treat your mantra as sacred, as secret, and then its effects on your consciousness will go deeper. Progress and Levels

The more we repeat our mantra, the more it is “energized” or “magnetized”. For one-syllable mantras, it is said that after 125,000 repetitions it “gets a life of its own”. It is our repeated attention working with the mantra that charges it. The mantra eventually becomes the most powerful thought in your mind, and then you can truly rely on it to bring you peace.

Once your mantra really gets momentum, the repetition becomes more and more effortless. It’s almost as if we simply “start” or “log into” the mantra, and it continues on its own, taking us into inner silence.

This is the traditional progress of the practice:

•             Verbal recitation — you repeat it out loud. This engages more of your senses, making it easier to keep your attention focused.

•             Whispering — the lips and tongue move, but there is barely any sound coming. This practice is subtler and deeper than the verbal recitation.

•             Mental recitation — you repeat the mantra only inside your mind. In the beginning, there is naturally some movement in the tongue and throat; but with time these also cease, and the practice is purely mental. This stage is what people typically associate with mantra meditation.

•             Spontaneous listening — at this point you are no longer repeating the mantra, but the mantra goes on by itself in your mind, spontaneously, all the time. At this point, there is no need to worry about its loudness, speed, etc. Just listen to it being repeated as it naturally wants to be repeated. This level is called ajapa japa, and it’s a silent mantra meditation.

As you can see, there is a progression from gross to subtle, from effort to effortless. A potential mistake some people make is wanting to skip levels and start directly with mental repetition only, or spontaneous repetition. That is a much more steep climb than the step-by-step progression outlined above.

Even if you don’t like verbal recitation, and want to go directly to the mental level, I recommend you at least do a few rounds of whispering recitation in the beginning. That will help you center your mind on the mantra much more easily.

At whatever point you find yourself on this scale, if you realize that your mind gets disengaged from the mantra, distracted into thinking or sleeping, then take it down a notch and put some more conscious effort into using the mantra, until it is ready to carry you once again.

These are the 10 Most Exciting Mantras for Meditation


Meditation could have various purposes. Some people meditate to achieve inner peace, others – to accomplish higher focus, or for self-motivation. There are guided meditation techniques aimed at assisting the participant to sleep better, to lose weight, to quit drinking…

A mantra is supposed to help you clear your consciousness out of the noise, so you can make room for one idea you want to concentrate on. A mantra is an idea, a philosophy or a world overview, concentrated in a sentence, a phrase or even one word.

Repeating your mantra in your mind will immerse you completely in an idea and will bring you closer to your goal.


The purpose of using the mantra is to shut out the outside world. You need to forget the thoughts that are cluttering your mind during your everyday life and concentrate on the thought that will help you grow.

The first step towards this is to choose your mantra. Select a chant that speaks to you. Even if what originally attracts you is the music of it, make sure you have an overall understanding of its meaning.

Behind every mantra stands an idea, an understanding of life, of you, of the universe. Only when you know your mantra, you can immerse completely in the meditation process.

If you are having difficulties shutting out, occupy more of your senses in it. Get your hands on a good quality notebook and write your mantra over and over again. Be conscious of your handwriting. Each copy must resemble the others.

Gradually, you can go to chanting or whispering. If it works for you, you can continue towards silent repetition.

1. Aum or the Om

Pronounced ‘Ohm’. The primal cry. It means ‘It Is, Will Be or To Become’. It is the most universal mantra. For its simplicity and specific sound, it is considered to be the sound of the universe. It represents the original vibration, the cycle of life – the birth and death. Reincarnation.

Research tells us there could be a scientific reason behind the popularity of Aum. Chanting Aum is thought to match the natural frequency of the universe – 432 Hertz, thereby bringing us to harmonically resonate with the cosmos. In contrast, most modern music is thought to be consistent with the 440 Hertz frequency.

Aligning yourself with the lower frequency will calm you down and ease you into your meditation process.

2. Om Namah Shivaya

The translation is ‘I bow to Shiva’. Shiva is the supreme God of transformation who represents the highest self.’ It is one of the most popular Hindu mantras. It is called the Shiva Panchakshara or simply Panchakshara. The five syllable mantra. (‘Om’ is excluded.)

The mantra originates in the Krishna Yajurveda, where it appears several times without its first syllable.

The five syllables – ‘’Na’ ‘Ma’ ‘Si’ ‘Va’ and ‘Ya’ are thought to represent five elements of the world – ‘Na’ represents ‘earth’. ‘Ma’ represents ‘water’. ‘Si’ represents ‘fire’. Va represents the ‘Pranic air’ and the ‘Ya sound represents the sky or ether.

‘Om Namah Shivaya’ is considered to bring you closer to the deity of Shiva, and everything in nature it represents.

3. Hare Krishna

The entirety of the mantra goes ‘Hare Krishna Hare Krishna, Krishna Krishna Hare Hare, Hare Rama Hare Rama, Rama Rama, Hare Hare’ and it is simply the repetition of the many names of Krishna. It was popularized by the Hare Krishna movement.

The Hare Krishna movement – the International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON) – unites various centers, temples, communities, meeting groups and others, dedicated to the tradition of the tradition within the Vedic or Hindu culture.

The ISKCON movement believe that the name of God in known to the people in many variations, including Allah, Jehovah, Yahweh, Rama. They have popularized the maha-mantra to acknowledge the unity of faith.

4. I am that I am

When Moses asked for his name, God’s answer to Moses, according to the famous lines of the Hebrew Torah, was ‘Ham-Sah’, or ‘I am that I am’.

‘I am that I am’ reaffirms the conscious presence of God that is everything, where everything that is, is the infinite God.

While meditating, breathe in while saying ‘ham’. With that, you acknowledge your presence and everything that you are – your senses, your feelings, your experiences. Breathing out and continue saying ‘sa’ and with that you align everything that you are, with everything that there is. The lives of those before you, with their senses, feelings and experiences. The nature. And the universe.

5. Aham-Prema

The mantra is pronounced as ‘Aah-ham-pree-mah’. It translates to ‘I am Divine Love’.

Chanting this mantra, you are aligning yourself with divine love – everything that unconditional love is and can be for you. Acceptance, purity, compliance, admiration, adoration, appreciation, gratitude, forgiveness, affection, emotion, harmony.

‘Aham Prema’ is a simple mantra to be repeated in a chant 108 times. It brings together mind, body, and soul in peace. It will help you leave your past behind. It will clear your mind from distraction and will give you purpose. ‘Aham Prema’ will energize you and give you a fresh start.

6. Ho’oponopono

Pronounced ‘ho-oh-pono-pono’, it is an ancient Hawaiian Mantra. The meaning would be: ‘I love you; I’m sorry; please forgive me; thank you.’.

It is preferred by people who find themselves to be overwhelmed by feelings of anger, shame, who have issues cause by complex interpersonal relationships, or find themselves to be unable to express their feelings towards their loved ones. People who feel they have been wronged and find it difficult to achieve forgiveness themselves.

Saying ‘I love you’ opens your heart. Saying ‘I’m sorry’ keeps you humble. Saying ‘Please forgive me’ acknowledges your imperfections and saying ‘thank you’ expresses your gratitude. The mantra will heal your karmic imprint and give you a chance for a fresh start.

7. Om Mani Padme Hum

The translation of the mantra would be ‘Hail the Jewel in the Lotus’. It is a mantra, used by Tibetan Buddhists to achieve the ultimate state of compassion, also known as Chenrezig.

The mantra can be divided seen as a whole of all of its components.

‘Om’ is the primal sound of the universe. It brings you harmony and aligns you with the energy of the cosmos. ‘Ma’ – strips you down from your needs. It takes you away from the world of the physical and it guides you towards the spiritual. ‘Ni’ – Releases you from passion and desire. It leaves you peaceful and content. ‘Pad’ – frees you from ignorance and prejudice. You are left with love and acceptance. ‘Me’ – releases you from possessiveness. You are ready accept the world as it is. ‘Hum’ – liberates you from hatred.

8. Buddho

A mantra, associated with the Mahayana or Vajrayana Buddhism, and a significant part of the Theravada tradition. Repeating Buddha’s name or other phrases in Pali is considered to be assisting the participant towards developing loving kindness.

‘Buddho’ comes to signify His title, rather than his name. By repeating the mantra, you are calling for the enlightened teacher to bring you peace, harmony between yourself and the world, harmony between the sensual and the spiritual world.

Sit comfortably on the ground and take several deep breaths before you begin. Next, breathing in, say a long ‘Bud-’, breathing out, continue ‘-dho’.

The mantra will bring you clarity and brightness at the end of your session.

9. Lumen de Lumine

Lumen De Lumine is the chant of the light. It helps you feel open to the world. It will immerse the participant in light. If your life is overpowered by darkness, Lumen De Lumine clears your aura and fills you in with brightness and energy. You will feel more awake and revitalized. It is the perfect balance between power and peace.

The mantra will give you the confidence you are protected from bad energies. You will feel strong, untouchable, invincible, like the sun.

Lumen De Lumine can touch anyone. You do not need to close yourself in your mind with this chant. Think of your beloved to send them positive energy and thoughts.

10. Sat, Chit, Ananda

Also known as Satchitananda, a compound Sanskrit word comprised of the three words ‘sat’, ‘cit’ and ‘ananda’.

Sat means ‘existence, being present, being alive, surviving, being true, being good, being right, natural, knowledgeable, honest’.

Chit means ‘sense, feel, recognize, comprehend, acknowledge, to think about something, to form an idea, to be conscious, to think, to consider’.

Ananda means ‘joy, bliss, pleasure, enjoyment, happiness, pure elation’.


Transcendental meditation is a kind of meditation that involves effortlessly and silently thinking about a specific mantra until you transcend conscious thought. Unlike most other forms of meditation, where you need to repeat the mantra aloud, with transcendental meditation, the mantra is not said aloud. Instead, it should only be repeated within your mind.

In transcendental meditation, the mantra is not the focus of your meditation session. Instead, it acts as a vehicle whose role is to guide your mind into transcendence. As you keep repeating the mantra over and over silently in your mind, your mind gradually gets into subtle levels of thinking, until you eventually transcend the mantra and settle into silence.

Due to the manner in which transcendental meditation works, transcendental meditation mantras need to have two qualities in order to allow transcendence to occur. First, the mantra needs to be a meaningless sound. If you use a mantra with a meaning, your mind will focus on the meaning of the word or phrase, making it impossible for you to transcend the surface of the word. However, when the word is meaningless, it becomes a lot easier to transcend the mantra.

Second, a transcendental meditation mantra needs to have a vibration that has the same resonance as the Om, also known as the primordial hum. Vibrations that have this resonance are charming and attractive to the mind, which makes it easier for the mind to settle towards silence when using them to meditate.

Ideally, according to the teachings of Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, the founder of Transcendental Meditation, the best transcendental meditation mantras should be passed on to someone by their teacher after they have gone through intense training. Such mantras are more likely to be more effective because the student is given a mantra that is unique to them based on the teacher’s knowledge of the student and what would work best for them.

Receiving your transcendental meditation mantra from your teacher after undergoing training has four advantages:

•             It ensures that you receive the correct mantra.

•             You will have a good idea of how to use the mantra properly.

•             It will be easier for you to correctly interpret the experiences that follow the use of the mantra in meditation.

•             Your teacher will always be ready to give you support and guidance should you run into challenges.

This is why you should get into training and receive your transcendental meditation mantras from a fully-trained teacher where possible. This will reduce the likelihood of incorrect practice, which would prevent you from gaining the full benefits of transcendental meditation.

Sometimes, however, you might not have the opportunity to undergo transcendental meditation training, yet you might still want to give it a try. If you are in such a situation, below is a list of mantras you can use for your transcendental meditation sessions. These mantras are good for beginners, and all you need to do is to pick the one you are most comfortable with and start using it in your meditation sessions.

1. Aham Prema

This mantra is quite effective at helping people connect to and making a deeper reflection to the holiness of love. It is also a great mantra for calming your mind, spirit, and heart.

2. Om Namah Shivaya

This mantra is good for helping you open up yourself during your meditation sessions. Om Namah Shivaya also helps to remind you that you have your unique holiness within. The vibration of this mantra typically passes through the heart, and is very effective at helping someone achieve transcendence.

3. Aum or Om

You already encountered this mantra earlier, but it can also be quite an effective mantra for transcendental meditation. The best thing about this mantra is that it is quite easy to perform, and the vibrations that arise from this mantra can be very effective in helping you achieve transcendence.

4. Om Gam Ganapataye Namaha

This mantra is usually used for invoking Ganesha, an elephant-headed deity who is known for removing obstacles from the way of yogis. As you might have guessed, this mantra is good for pushing aside barriers that might otherwise prevent you from attaining transcendence. It also helps free your energy and get rid of negativity from your spirit.

5. Sat Nam

This mantra is good for releasing latent energy that has built up at the base of the spine, and is very popular in Kundalini yoga. However, it is also an effective transcendental meditation mantra for beginners.

These five mantras are very powerful for helping beginners experience the benefits of transcendental meditation. However, I still recommend that you undergo training before trying transcendental meditation and receive your unique transcendental meditation mantras from your teacher. This is the most effective way of getting the most out of transcendental meditation.


A mantra will only be helpful to you if you fully believe the idea behind it. If you are a beginner in meditation and you are not too familiar with the ancient traditions it is rooted in, it might be helpful to you to create your own chant. Here are some tips:

•             Try this: take a piece of paper and write down the words/ideas you want to immerse yourself in. Just brainstorm. Now, if you can create a sentence or two out of the chaos, use those. If not, just repeat the words. However, keep the mantra short. Up to 10-15 words.

•             Make sure you start with a word that means something to you. Start with the word that signifies your goal: ‘Peace.’, ‘Joy.’, ‘Love.’, ‘Faith.’ Or ‘Harmony.’

•             The mantra must have a direction, but it should stay in the positive: For example, instead of saying ‘I am not worried,’ say ‘I am peaceful’.

•             Repetition is key. For beginners, it could feel strange at first. Just relax and start the process. You can start with as little as 20 repeats. However, since the ultimate goal of a mantra is to block the world outside, the more you repeat and concentrate on the mantra the further you will dive inside your consciousness. Don’t count. Aim for a certain amount of time in repetition instead of a certain amount of repetitions.

And here are some suggestions:

I am full of light.

Much like Lumen de Lumine, this chant will help you wrap your mind around three powerful concepts at the same time.

First of all, light is pure. Saying ‘I am full of light’ will help you clear all dark thoughts, all dark energies. All worries, all envy, all hatred, all guilt will go away.

Second, light is power. You will suddenly feel more confident, more able. You will feel braver. You can follow your heart, your dreams, your emotions. You will feel freedom.

Third, purity plus power equals love. You will feel more open to others, you will perceive others to be more open-hearted towards you.

Past, present and future are one.

Everything is here to pass. It is a powerful mantra to free you from the burdens of the past and to liberate you from the ambitions of the future.

While chanting the mantra, imagine the world as a whole. As one moment. From the big bang, to forming our galaxy, the Earth, your genes, your body. Imagine yourself as a child and the pathways and decisions that brought you to where you are today.

Imagine how all your decisions could have created all the different versions of you. Imagine holding your hands with another you and another you, all living in harmony.

I feel. I exist.

This chant will bring your mind and your body together. Your emotional self and your sensual self will become one.

Breathe in. Imagine yourself, sitting on the floor, and gradually expand your vision to outside of your house, up through the clouds, seeing the Earth from above. Continue expanding until you see the galaxy, swirling around slowly. Now gradually go back to yourself.

Now breathe out and breathe in again. Touch your forehead, your arms, your belly, your legs and your toes. Gradually go back to your forehead. Imagine your blood vessels, your nervous system, your heart. Your cells.

You have now imagine everything that is bigger than you. And everything that is smaller. What you can manage, and what you are in awe of. Acknowledge you exist. Acknowledge where you are.

Love is in everything. Love is everything.

Love is a powerful healer. Imagine love as something you can see. It could be light, it could be color, it could be a glow, or a mist or a cloud.

Imagine objects and people from your everyday life – your way to work, your friends in the office, your local store, your objects at home.

Plant love around everything. Your new mantra will help you see the world in a different light. You will feel more at ease in your surroundings, if you try to see purity, light and beauty everywhere around you.

I belong. I have faith.

In the grand scale of the Cosmos you are just a spec. All your actions, your feelings, your doubts and your stressors are… insignificant. You are but a small particles in this universe.

But you belong. With your feelings, you connect to others. With the mere matter that comprises your body, you are the same as the Universe. The atoms – the protons and the electrons that comprise your body are the same protons and electrons that the stars are made of.

You belong. You are a part of a beautiful, harmonic world. You are part of a bigger plan.

Today I Am Perfect.

This is a very powerful personal meditation mantra, especially for people who might be struggling with self-esteem issues. Using this mantra in your daily meditation sessions reminds you every day that you are in control of how you feel, and is very effective in helping one to build their self-confidence. It reminds you to find happiness in who you are and what you love doing, and to follow your hearts desires, because when all is said and done, these things are what make you who you are, and that you are someone who is perfect as you are.

I Am The Sky. Everything Else Is The Weather.

The sky does not get affected by the weather. Sometimes it rains, sometimes dark clouds cover the sky, sometimes white clouds cover the sky, but everyone knows that after a while, the blue sky will appear again and that the sun will shine again. Using this mantra reminds you to be like the sky. You should remain unfazed by whatever emotions you experience, because like the weather, they will pass after some time, and you will go back to your usual, cheerful self. This mantra is especially powerful when you are going through tough times or situations.

Watch this fascinating YouTube video that scientifically explains the effects of the state of FLOW – a state that can be induced on the brain via edge-cutting technology, but can also be successfully achieved naturally via meditation


Meditation is rooted in tradition – centuries of tradition. Years and years of people practicing the same ritual, thereby connecting their consciousness in a never-ending chain of existence.

But what is most important is that it works.

Don’t be intimidated by meditation.

There is a culture, there is a science, but before all else, there is a very simple ritual. You don’t need to be a monk, you don’t need to grow a beard or committing to a vow of silence.

Here is some helpful advice how to improve your state of consciousness during meditation:

Be comfortable

During meditation, you need to free your mind and your body from all negativity. You cannot do that while your back hurts. Choose a part of your home where you feel good energy.

Lay down a thick mat that will cushion your weight even if you stay in the same position for a prolonged period of time.

Beautify your meditation shrine with decorative pillows with complementary colors. Anything that brings you joy. Think sequins, glitter and bright pigments.

Add candles, scents, figurines and ornaments of your choosing. Anything that puts you in a blissful, joyful state of mind. This is now your safe space. It is your haven.

Be regular

Don’t be hard on yourself in the beginning. If you are trying to meditate to fight stress, do it whenever, and wherever you can. Whenever you feel the need.

However, if you are already completely into the idea, and you are still finding it difficult to concentrate, you have to ask yourself if can possibly create a stronger habit.

Ideally, you should meditate in the morning, in order to prepare your consciousness for the challenges of the day. Or, in the evening, put yourself to sleep in peace.

If you have a hectic schedule, if you work in shifts for example, you don’t need to meditate at the same time of day, but maybe just after you wake up and just before you fall asleep.

Do it your own way

You don’t need to learn Sanskrit in order to meditate. Create your own meditation shrine. Write down your own mantras. Come up with your own tradition. As long as it works for you.

What is most important is:

•             You should know what you are trying to accomplish when meditating

•             You should be able to concentrate on one thought, one idea, that is important to you.

•             At the end of the meditation session you should feel relaxed, at peace, happy. Or just in any way better than you did before you started.

Create habits

Again, you should aim for meditating at the same time of day. Have a particular comfortable clothing when going for your session. Put on the same music that puts you in the right state of mind. Spread around the scent that will put you in the mood.

The idea is to be creating an environment that will condition you to relax and concentrate. Being exposed to the same sensations, your diving deep into your consciousness will become a reflex.

Embrace the culture

Try and learn more about the roots of meditation. You will come across some fascinating facts and beautiful accounts and experiences.

But if you don’t feel the life of a Yogi is for you even though meditation itself works, don’t deny that part of your life.

Reimagine yourself as a modern Yogi. Have respect for your need to clear your consciousness, and acknowledge it is difficult to completely reimmerse yourself in an old culture.


Meditation works. It has positive results for millions of people across the globe. It is worth giving a try.

Weather you go for the classic meditation techniques and chants and embrace tradition, or if you go for a more modern version, in line with the contemporary living you can be equally relieved by the anxieties of life, the worries for the future, the anger for the past and the distractions of today.

Choose your way and give it a try. Refine your habits and improve upon your ritual until you feel completely confident with your new state of mind.

Whatever you do, remember you are doing it for you, for your consciousness and your own mind. Your mind creates your world.

10 Best Hindu Mantras For Prosperity In Life

Lord Shiva is one of the most powerful Gods of Hinduism. He is can be easily pleased by pure devotion towards him. He can eliminate even the biggest difficulties and problems of a person.

Lord Vishnu is one of the Major Gods of Hinduism. Along with Shiva and Brahma, he is the supreme god in the Hindu pantheon.

Below are Powerful Mantras of Lord Shiva as well as Mantras of Lord Vishnu.

5 Mantras Of Lord Shiva

Shiva Mool Mahamantra

Om Namah Shivaya

 Meaning > I Bow down to the Supreme God Shiva

This Manta is known as the Mahamantra of Hindu scriptures. Along with Hare Krishna Mahamantra, it is the most powerful Mantra of Hindu scriptures.

Recitation of this Mantra brings calmness and peace to the person and using this mantra while doing meditation or chanting rosary beads gets you to have the maximum benefits of it.

Mahamrityunjaya Mantra

Om Triyambakam Yajamahe, Sugandhimpushti-vardhnam

Urvarukmiv Bandhnan Mrityormokshiye Mamritat

 Meaning > Oh Three-eyed one, we worship You! You are fragrant and giver of happiness and peace. You liberate us from this bondage of death and life and take us towards Moksha.

The Mahamrityunjaya mantra is one of the most powerful mantras of Lord Shiva which gives protection from negative energies and evil spirits. This Mantra is especially used when some evil spirits of deceased persons try to harm you. Unlike the Mool Mahamantra, this mantra has some restrictions and it should only be used for certain purposes.

Rudra Mantra

Om Namoh Bhagvate Rudraay

Meaning > Hail to the God Rudra!

The Rudra Mantra is used to please Lord Shiva and get your desires fulfilled instantly. Regular chanting of this mantra can give you fast results and fulfill any of your desires in short time.

Shiva Gayatri Mantra

Om Tatpurushaye Vidmahe, Mahadevaye Dhimahi, Tanno Rudra Prachodayat

Meaning > Oh Supreme Being, I bow down to you and honor you. Oh Rudra, please illuminate my mind and give me higher intellect.

Shiva Stotram

KarpurGauram Karunavataram Sansara Saram, Bhujagendraharam,

Sada vasantam Hridya Rabinde Bhavam Bhawani Sahitam namami

Meaning > Oh Fair-skinned one, you are very merciful! You are the cause of this world and you hold immense powers. Let yourself reside in my heart forever! Along with your consort Mata Parvati, who is the supreme Mother of this Universe, I bow down to you

5 Mantras Of Lord Vishnu

Vishnu Mool Mantra

Om Namoh Bhagvate Vasudevaya

Meaning > I bow down to Shri Bhagwan Vishnu

The Mool Mantra is often considered as the most powerful and effective Mantra. This mantra is exclusively recited when chanting on rosary beads or doing any kind of meditation. Unlike many Mantras, it has no restrictions and anyone can chant it anywhere.

Vishnu Stotra

Shantakaram Bhujagshayanam Padmanabham Suresham,

Vishwadharam Gagan Sadrisham Meghvarnam Shubhangam,

Laxmikantam Kamalnayanam Yogibirdhyanagamyam,

Vande Vishnum Bhav bhay haram sarv lokaiknatham

 Meaning > Hail Lord Vishnu who sleeps quietly on the thousand-headed snake named Sheshnag. Hail Him from whose navel, the lotus of Lord Brahma arises and who is the God of all Devtas.

He is the cause of this world and he is infinite as like the sky. His body complexion is as dark as of the thundering clouds and is very beautiful.

He is the Lord of Mata Lakshmi, and his eyes are like lotus, he is the supreme being on which the Yogis meditate. I bow down to him as he removes all the worldly fear and is the God of all the worlds.

The Vishnu Mantra is one of the best mantras which is used to please him. Recitation of this mantra brings peace and protection from evils.

Mangal Mantra

Mangalam Bhagwan Vishnu, Mangalam Garudadhwaja,

Mangalam Pundari Kaksha, Mangalam Tano Harih

 Meaning > All praise to Lord Vishnu who bears the flag of Garuda. All auspiciousness to him who is lotus eyed and the dear of Lakshmi. All auspiciousness to Hari who is the God of all Devtas.

This Mantra is exclusively recited when starting on a new work or some auspicious thing. When a people start a new business or do marriage, this Mantra is chanted so that the work is done successfully and no obstacle comes in.

Hare Krishna Mahamantra

Hare Rama hare rama, rama rama hare hare,

Hare Krishna hare krishna, krishna krishna hare hare

 Meaning > All praise be to Lord Rama and Lord Krishna who are the supreme cause of this world.

This Mantra is exclusively chanted in devotion to Lord Vishnu. It is considered as the powerful Mantra as it is a Mahamantra.

The Vedic Mantras – Chants and Hymns for the Human Psyche

Mantras are an important aspect of Hinduism. They are used in ritual and spiritual practices to express devotion, establish communication or fulfil desires, and in many respects serve the same purpose as prayers and supplications. Chants and incantations have been used since the earliest times by various ancient cultures to invoke or appease gods, ancestors and spirits or to cast spells.

Mantras in Vedic tradition

In ancient India, mantras formed a vital part of Vedic religion. It is possible that the Indus people also might have used similar practices to invoke their gods. Vedic mantras are derived mainly from the Vedas, which are primarily books of mantras, which go by different names such as the Riks, Samans and Yajus. They were chanted or sung or used in formulae in elaborate Vedic, sacrificial ceremonies.

Mantras have traditionally been used in both ritual and spiritual practices and worldly activities for various ends. They still occupy an important place in Hinduism as the manifestations of divine speech and expression of gods and heavenly knowledge. In Hindu ritual practice and prayers, mantras are used to communicate with gods and invoke their power to achieve certain ends.

Mantras constitute the heart of Hindu sacrificial ceremonies, which cannot be performed without the intervention of experienced priests. On such occasions, the mantras are usually chanted aloud by one or more priests while others may join them in chorus or when required. One may also silently chant them to maintain secrecy or for convenience. The Vedas suggest that the efficacy of prayers and mantras increase manifold when they are silently chanted in mental worship rather than when they are uttered aloud.

Hindus also have the tradition of writing mantras (usually the name of a god) on paper as an offering to God or to express love and devotion to a particular deity. The practice usually consists of writing the name of a deity or a specific mantra for a certain number of times, which is usually ten million times. Once the goal is reached, devotees carry the papers or the notebooks in which they have written the name and leave them as an offering at the temples or sacred places of the deity.

What does mantra mean?

Literally speaking, in Sanskrit “mantra” means to consult, seek advice or help, think or deliberate. The source of the mantras is God. In the human body it is the breath in the speech which gives each mantra a verbal form, awakens its hidden power and sends it across the space as sound vibrations to its desired destination. Mantras are thus divine vehicles which carry the thoughts and prayers of devotees to the heaven and help them establish communication with gods.

Thus, in the religious parlance, mantras are primarily meant to communicate with gods, consult them or seek their advice and help. An associative or derivative word is mantri, which means a minister who gives counsel or advice to a ruler or a head priest (pradhan mantri). As the products of the mind, mantras are also associated with intelligence or mental brilliance. In a pure mind, mantras manifest themselves, as they did in the minds of the Vedic seers. Each divine mantra (man + tra) is an expression of the pure mind, or a mind suffused with the brilliance of the Self. The purer the mind is, the greater will be the effect of a mantra. Since mantras manifest on their own in the minds of pure devotes, they are also considered eternal, not man-made (apauruseya) and only heard (sruti) as in case of the mantras from the Vedas.

In traditional usage, a mantra is a sacred utterance, word, phrase, syllable, sentence or prayer containing one or more of the five divine powers of God namely creation, preservation, concealment, destruction and revelation. A mantra may have a specific meaning or not. However, most mantras and even single syllables (bijaksharas) which are used in Hinduism have either a literal meaning or a symbolic or hidden meaning or both.

Of all the mantras, Aum is considered the source (mula) mantra. It is the highest and the purest and Brahman himself in word form (Sabda Brahma). It is also known as mantra Purusha (God as mantra) Pranava (life supporting mantra) and Taraka (secret), having potency to divinize and purify all other verbal expressions and word forms. Hence, it is customarily used as a prefix to all other mantras to infuse them divine power and purity.

Theories related with mantras

Mantras are used as sacred sounds or utterances. Since they are taken from the sacred texts, they are considered auspicious and God in word form. As stated before, they are endowed with one or more of the five divine powers of God. Hence, they been extensively used to in the pursuit of the four chief aims of human life namely dharma (religious duty), artha (wealth), kama (sexual desire) and moksha (liberation).

They have also been used in the study and recitation of scriptures and contemplation. Many mantras are still used as mental hooks to remember complex philosophical concepts or religious ideas. There is also a lot of secrecy associated with the mantra tradition. Because of their potency or specific effects, some mantras cannot be revealed to all or revealed to qualified people only. For example, traditionally the Upanishads are considered secret knowledge and taught only in person by a teacher to qualified students. A student or disciple is also expected to keep secret any initiation mantra given to him by his teacher or spiritual master.

A History of Vedic Literature (Brief Survey and Study)

Each mantra will have a seer (rishi) who composed it, a rhythm or meter (Chhanda) which determines its sound, and a deity (devata) who presides over it and manifests when the mantra is correctly pronounced. It also contains a seed syllable (bija) which imparts to it manifesting power (Shakti) and a support (kilakam) which makes it strong or stable until it delivers the intended result.

Because of these hidden components and their divine aspects, many rules are associated with the chanting of the mantras. The attitude and the personal purity of the person who utters them also matter. Pronunciation is of utmost importance in the use of mantras. Without right pronunciation and intonation, the deity in the mantra may not respond. Equally important is the intention for which a mantra is used, since the use of mantras for any purpose produces karmic consequences and influences the destiny of its user.

Utility of Mantras

Mantras are used both for positive and destructive purposes. The following are some of the most important purposes, for which mantras are used in Hinduism.

•             To communicate with gods and express devotion

•             To invoke gods and seek their help or counsel

•             To propitiate fierce gods who are displeased or angry and avoid their wrath.

•             To seek divine protection against evil forces and enemies

•             To cleanse the mind and body for liberation or self-transformation

•             To stabilize the mind in the contemplation of God

•             To consecrate a place of worship before starting a sacrificial ritual or ceremony

•             To install the images of gods in a temple or during domestic worship.

•             To fulfill worldly desires and achieve peace and prosperity in life

•             To attract opposite sex and enchant them or repel rival lovers and discourage competition

•             To overcome death, diseases adversity, bad karma, or unfavorable circumstances

•             To help the departing souls who are on their way to liberation or rebirth

•             To cast spells, charm, delude or destroy opponents

•             To control or enchant animals, wild beasts, serpents, etc.

•             To restrain the mind and enter deep sleep or higher states of consciousness

•             To earn divine grace or the grace of a guru

•             To gain siddhis or spiritual powers (siddhis)

•             To express profound spiritual and philosophical truths

•             To validate truths with verbal testimony (sabda pramana)

•             To achieve success in sports, duels, debates and battles

The distinct types of mantras

Depending upon their use and purpose, mantras can be classified into various categories, which are stated below.

General purpose mantras

They are popular mantras (such as Hare Rama Hare Krishna or Jayaram Sri Ram), which are known to general public and which are used by devotees for various purposes, without the need to follow austerities, rules and restraints. Devout Hindus use them in their daily lives to express devotion, overcome fear, ward off evil, instill confidence, or just to calm their minds. Some are also used as autosuggestions or affirmations to change their thinking or behavior or train their minds.

Specific purpose mantras

These mantras are chanted for specific purposes or on specific occasions, and only by people who have the permission to use them because of their birth, virtue, knowledge or allegiance to a particular sect or teacher tradition. A few examples are the mantras which are used in Vedic and Tantric rituals by priests to address specific gods and goddesses or to achieve specific ends. Mantras which are used in sacrificial formulas and mystic diagrams (yantras) also come under this category. Those who use them have to observe certain rules and restraints to obtain desired results. The rules pertain to how many times they should be chanted, when, where and under what circumstances.

Peace mantras

They are usually chanted at the beginning of sacrificial ceremonies, yoga, spiritual discourses or to begin new tasks. They are also used to ritually cleanse homes and places of worship, drive away evil forces or in meditation to stabilize the mind and the body. Most peace mantras are used to address Brahman or the triple gods, Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva. They usually end with the phrase “peace, peace, peace,” which means peace in the heaven, peace upon earth and peace within.

Purification mantras

They are used to cleanse ritual places and sacrificial pits where sacrificial ceremonies (yajnas) are performed. They are also used to purify sinners, those who are afflicted with impurities (doshas), the host of sacrifice (yajaman), the images used in worship, or the offerings and utensils that are used in ritual worship. Most purification mantras are chanted along with the sprinkling of ritual water. One may also chant them while taking a bath or a dip in a sacred river or on auspicious occasions to cleanse the house, the host of sacrifices or all the people who participate in them.

Expiation mantras

As their name suggests, these mantras are used to seek forgiveness for any mistakes one may have intentionally or unintentionally committed while performing the sacrificial ceremonies or domestic worship. Most Vedic rituals and methods of worship contain a provision for expiation, since they are elaborate rituals with a number of steps which require the participation of many people. The expiation is usually performed by the head priest or the Brahman priest, who chants the mantras on behalf of all to seek mercy and make the worship complete.

Ritual mantras

These mantras are used in elaborate Vedic ceremonies (yajnas), daily sacrifices (nitya karmas), domestic worship (puja) or sacraments (Samskaras) such as conception, the birth of a child, initiation, marriage or death. The mantras are taken mostly from either the Vedas or Tantras or vernacular literature. Depending upon their use they may be introductory mantras, invitation mantras, main mantras, conclusion mantras farewell mantras, etc., which may be uttered by one or more priests or individuals. The chanting may last for hours or days or even months.

Initiation mantras

It is customary during the initiation ceremony (upanayana), for a teacher or an elderly person in the family to utter certain sacred syllables or words in the ears of the young initiates to mark the beginning of his education in the Vedas or initiation into spiritual knowledge. These mantras are also used by spiritual teachers, or his appointed disciples, to initiate new members who join their tradition, or the monastic discipline either as a lay disciple or as advanced practitioners.

Destructive mantras

These mantras are meant to cause mental or physical harm or injury. There is a whole branch of demonic knowledge (kshudra vidya) which is meant for this purpose. The Vedas also contain many hymns which are used for negative purposes to destroy lives and property or cause psychic damage. The epics and the Puranas suggest how mantras were used in warfare to unleash destructive weapons and arrows upon enemies to kill them, shock them, delude them or weaken their resolve. The Atharvaveda contains many mantras which are ritually used to inflict harm or destruction upon enemies, and potential rivals in marital relationships, love affairs, etc. The Veda also contains hymns for use during animal sacrifices.

Ignorance and Superstition surrounding mantras

On the negative side mantras contribute to ignorance and superstition. Because of their popularity they are used by unscrupulous charlatans and religious frauds to attract gullible people with the promise to cure diseases, remove adversity, enchant opposite sex, exorcise evil energies and attract abundance in exchange for money or personal favors. People end up paying large sums for charms, amulets, rings and bracelets inscribed with secret mantras to fulfill their desires or overcome some problem. Some also indulge in gory rituals and superstitious practices, using mantras, to gain evil powers for destructive purposes. Mantras are meant for the welfare of society and the order and regularity of the world. They have to be used as an offering to God by people who are pure and devoted, as part of their obligatory service to God. Any misuse of mantras with selfish intention produces sinful karma and leads to one’s spiritual downfall.

Healing caused by Mantropathy

The chanting of Om in Transcendental Meditation has now received widespread recognition. Mantras can be used to treat tension and many other difficult diseases that are yet to come. The Brahmvarchas Shodh Sansthan, a research center for integration of science and spirituality in Shantikunj, Haridwar, India, is the only place which carries out extensive experiments on “mantra shakti.” The result of these experiments is used to testify that Mantropathy can be used scientifically for healing and environment cleansing.

The Method

There are many schools of thought on the methods of chanting. A Mantra chanted correctly or incorrectly, knowingly or unknowingly, carefully or carelessly, is sure to bear the desired result for the physical and mental well being. It is also believed by many that the glory of Mantra chanting cannot be established through reasoning and intellect. It can be experienced or realized only through devotion, faith, and constant repetition of the Mantra.

Healing Power of Meditation

According to some scholars, Mantra chanting is Mantra Yoga. The simple yet powerful Mantra, Om or Aum harmonizes the physical forces with the emotional forces with the intellectual forces. When this happens, you begin to feel like a complete being—mentally and physically. But this process is very slow and requires a lot of patience and unfailing faith.

It is important to have complete faith in the recitation of Mantras. It is primarily through faith—aided by strong will—that one achieves one’s goals. A sound body and calm mind are essential for the chanter of Mantras. Once you are free from all worries and have achieved stability in mind and body, you will derive maximum benefit through the recitation of Mantras. You must have a definite object in view and a strong will power to obtain the desired objective, and then direct that will to achieve the goal.

Key Takeaways

Vedic mantras, chants, and hymns have been part of Hindu tradition for thousands of years and are believed to have a powerful impact on the human psyche.

The chanting of Vedic mantras is considered a form of meditation that can lead to spiritual awakening and self-realization.

Vedic mantras are believed to have a vibrational quality that can resonate with the different chakras of the body, leading to physical and mental healing.

Each Vedic mantra has a specific purpose and is associated with a particular deity or aspect of the divine.

The recitation of Vedic mantras requires proper pronunciation and understanding of their meaning, which is why it is important to learn from a knowledgeable teacher.

The use of Vedic mantras is not limited to Hinduism, and people of all religions and backgrounds can benefit from their practice.

In addition to the spiritual benefits, the chanting of Vedic mantras has been scientifically proven to have a positive impact on the brain and nervous system.

5. Meditation and Yoga

•             Yoga means ‘being together with God’. There are different types of yoga.

•             Hindus believe that the soul (atman) is different from the body.

•             The body is always changing and is temporary (it will be finished one day). The soul not changing and is eternal. Eternal means something that is never born or made and it never dies or breaks.

•             The body is black, white or yellow. It is the body that is young or old. It is the body which is British, Chinese or Indian. The soul is none of these things. Therefore, we should not think a person is good or bad just because of their body.

•             The soul lives in the heart. This soul is the real ‘me’. Because I am in the body, the body has life. When the soul leaves the body, the body is dead.

•             Hindus believe that when the soul leaves the body, it goes into a new one. This may be another human body. It could be an animal or plant body. This is called ‘reincarnation’.

•             Reincarnation doesn’t have to go on forever. Hindus believe that when we are humans we should try to obtain moksha. Moksha means liberation or freedom from reincarnation – stopping the cycle of birth, death, another birth, and so on.

•             Yoga and meditation are ways to slow down the mind so we can see the ‘real me’. When we do this, we can get moksha.

•             God is also inside our heart. If we listen carefully, we can understand what he wants us to do. Sometimes we don’t want to hear!

•             For Hindu people, yoga and meditation are part of their worship. To meditate, they often chant prayers and mantras. A mantra is a short saying, often said over and over again.

•             Hindus believe that there are three types of behaviour. Good, bad and in-between. We can call them ‘good’, ‘fiery’ and ‘stormy’.

•             A good person is peaceful, and thinks of doing good to others. A fiery person wants a lot – to enjoy and have lots of money. A stormy person is always miserable, lazy, and sleeps much too much!

•             Most of us are stormy on some days! But Hindus believe that we should try to be good. Yoga, prayer and meditation are ways to help us do this.

Different Types of Hindu Meditation Techniques and Benefits

In modern times, Yoga and meditation have penetrated the daily schedules of working day people. All Yoga and meditation have their roots in one way or the other in the Hindu tradition.

Types of Hindu Meditation

This will discuss the major Hindu meditation types and their meanings here. You can also learn how different Hindu meditation techniques can benefit you and how you can do it.

Om Meditation


The Om mantra is a one-syllable meditation that is repeated for the purpose of focus. Some spiritual teachers claim that it is very important to get the pronunciation right as it is associated with the right type of “vibration.” Others state that it is only a tool to concentrate and focus your mind. Likewise, other mantras used in Hindu traditions, Buddhist traditions, Jainism, Sikhism, and Daoism also have the same origin.

How you can perform it:

Like most meditation, the goal is to sit straight with the spine erect and eyes closed. The mantra is repeated thoroughly over and over during the entire session. Some practitioners have the methodology to time the breath with the mantra.

Repetition of the mantra helps you disconnect from the thoughts filling your mind so that perhaps you may slip into the gap between thoughts. The mantra is a tool to support your meditation practice. Mantras can be viewed as ancient power words with subtle intentions that help us connect to spirit, the source of everything in the universe.”

Traditionally, the mantras are supposed to be repeated 108 or 1008 times. Beads of malas made of 108 or 1008 beads are used to keep the count.

Who is it for?

People who want their brains to focus on the meditation would find it easier to meditate while chanting the mantra. Since mantra is a word, thoughts are perceived as words. Thus, it becomes easier to focus on those words without having the mind to meander around erratic thoughts.

This Hindu Meditation is for all and is easier to do.

Transcendental Meditation

Origin: Transcendental meditation was introduced by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi in 1955 and gained popularity in the west during the late 60s and early 70s. Most of the proliferation comes from the relationship between the guru and celebrities such as The Beatles and The Beach Boys.

Currently, it is estimated that over 5 million practitioners of this type of meditation.

How you can do it:

This sort of meditation is not taught freely. You can only learn it through one of their licensed instructors. This has been a major reason the institution has gained a lot of criticism globally.

The general way of doing it is using the mantra and practicing the mantra for 15-20 minutes twice or thrice per day with closed eyes. The mantras are given to the person based on gender and age. They are some Tantric names of Hindu deities.

Another version includes “Natural Stress Relief,” and this version removes the mystical side of Transcendental meditation.

Who is it for?

While many have claimed benefits from this version of meditation, much criticism surrounds this, especially since you need to empty your pocket even to learn it. If you wish to practice it, you must research well before doing so.

Self-enquiry and “Who am I?” Meditation

Origin: The original root word for this meditation is “Atma Vichara,” – which means to “investigate” our true nature and delve into understanding the answer to the “Who am I?” question.

Ramana Maharshi greatly popularized this during the 20th century. In modern days, variations such as the non-duality movement or commonly known as neo-Advaita, have been inspired by his teaching. Many contemporary teachers have deployed the techniques. Some famous of them are Mooji, AdyaShanti, and Eckhart Tolle.

How to do self-inquiry meditation?

While the practice is simple and subtle, it is difficult to explain since it sounds abstract.

The first is the main question of whether I or the ego is the center of your universe. The ego is present in all your thoughts and emotions, but we are unclear about what it is and its role in our body, mind, and rules.

With this technique, the root question is “Who Am I,” and it is asked repeatedly within yourself. Any verbal answers are rejected and are used simply as a tool to focus on the subjective feeling of “I,” and I am.” You need to be one with this feeling, and only then you can reveal your true self of “I.”

Mind you, this is not an intellectual pursuit. This is not a personality test. This is just connecting with yourself and recognizing the pure existence, objectless and choice-less awareness.

In some variations, the “I” is concentrated on the object itself – be it completely different from internal or external, physical or mental. The main attention is on the source. While other meditation forms require positions and postures, there is no special such for this meditation.

Who is it for?

This can be very tough to follow, especially if you have no previous meditation experience. There are, however, some YouTube videos made by Mooji that could help you on this path. But this powerful form of meditation can bring inner freedom and peace.

Yoga Meditation


When “Yogic Meditation” is mentioned, the term covers a large scope of yoga. The tradition goes back to 1700 B.C. and is said to elevate a person to a higher spiritual self and self-knowledge.

There are several divisions of the practice – the rules of conduct (Yamas and Niyamas), physical postures (asanas), breathing exercises (pranayama), and contemplative practices of meditation (pratyahara, Dharana, Dhyana, Samadhi). In other terms, they are called Ashtanga Yoga (Eight limbs of Yoga).

How to perform it?

Here are some of the most practiced Yoga variations:

i. Third Eye Meditation: This can be used to focus attention on the spot between the eyebrows, generally known as the third eye.

ii. Kundalini Meditation: It is one of a complex practice. The main objective is to identify the kundalini energy residing at the back of your spine and find a way to awaken it, leading toward enlightenment. (Kundalini Awakening)

iii. Gazing Meditation: This one is done with the eyes open. The person focuses on an external body and uses the power of the mind to concentrate and visualize.

iv. Chakra meditation: The performer focuses on parts of the body’s seven chakras.

v. Kriya Yoga: This is suitable for those with a devotional temperament and is a collection of energy, breathing, and meditation exercises.

vi. Sound Meditation: Practitioners focus on the sound and start the meditation with ambient music, including the chants of “Om.” (You can use an aid of a mobile app for the sound meditation – Sounds app for Android and iOS )

vii. Tantra Meditation: Tantra has a very rich tradition and has its own rules for performing meditation. Some examples of practicing this meditation include: Merge the mind and the senses in the interior space in the spiritual heart.

•             When one object is perceived, all other objects become empty. Concentrate on that emptiness.

•             Concentrate on the space which occurs between two thoughts.

•             Fix attention inside of the skull. Close eyes.

•             Meditate on the occasion of any great delight.

•             Meditate on the feeling of pain.

•             Dwell on the reality which exists between pain and pleasure.

•             Meditate on the void in one’s body, extending in all directions simultaneously.

•             Concentrate on a bottomless well or standing in a very high place.

•             Listen to the Anahata [heart chakra] sound.

•             Listen to the sound of a musical instrument as it dies away.

•             Contemplate the universe or one’s own body as being filled with bliss.

•             Concentrate intensely on the idea that the universe is completely void.

•             Contemplate that the same consciousness exists in all bodies.

viii. Pranayama: This one is completely based on breathing exercises. There are techniques such as the 4-4-4-4-4, where you breathe in for 4 seconds, breath out for 4 seconds, hold up for 4 seconds, breathe out for 4 seconds, and empty for 4 seconds. There are tons of other different variations you could practice.

You might want to learn more about chakras, Trataka, Raja Yoga, Kriya Yoga, Nada Yoga, and Tantra if you want to grasp more on this topic.

Who is it for?

You could try various Hindu meditation types depending on what you want. The simplest one is “third eye meditation,” which has quicker benefits.

What is Dhyana?

The Sanskrit word dhyana, derived from the verbal root dhyai (“to contemplate, meditate, think”), is the most common designation both for the meditative state of consciousness and the yogic techniques by which it is induced. The Vedanta tradition also employs the terms nididhyasana, which stems from the same verbal root, upasana (literally “dwelling upon”), and bhavana (literally “cultivating”).

Meditation is central to the spiritual endeavor in many schools of Hinduism, notably the Yoga tradition. The Bhagavad-Gita (12.12) ranks meditation above intellectual knowledge, and the Garuda-Purana (222.l0) states:

“Meditation is the highest virtue. Meditation is the foremost austerity. Meditation is the greatest purity. Therefore be fond of meditation.”

This exhortation expresses a sentiment that is widespread in the sacred literature of Hinduism.

However, meditation is by no means universally regarded as the principal means of attaining Self realization. For instance, the Bhagavad-Gita (13.24) states that some behold the Self (atman) by means of meditation, while others approach it through samkhya-yoga and karma-yoga. Here samkhya-yoga stands for the spiritual practice of discernment (viveka) between the real and the unreal, and karma-yoga is the practice of dispassionate action.

The term dhyana is widely used to refer to the contemplative process that prepares the ground for the ecstatic state (samadhi), though occasionally the term is also employed to signify that superlative state of consciousness.

Dhyana – The 7th Limb of Yoga

Dhyana is one of the eight limbs of classical yoga. It is the penultimate limb, which leads to self-absorption (samadhi). In some scriptures, it is considered synonymous with self-absorption. The Yogasutras declare that meditation is helpful in steadying the mind (1.39), which is fickle by nature and which is responsible for most of our afflictions and disturbances.The object of contemplation can be anything, external or internal, the largest of the large or the smallest of small. Meditation upon the Self or God is however considered the best meditation and recommended in many traditions.

In the second section of the Yogasutras, Patanjali further declares (2.11) that the states of mind (vrittis) produced by afflictions (klesas) can be eliminated with the help of meditation. The afflictions listed in the scripture (2.4) are ignorance (avidya), egoism (asmita), attachment (raga), aversion (dvesha) and longing for life (abhinivesa). Actions performed under the influence of these afflictions or the states of mind they produce lead to karma (2.12) and fructify as birth (jati), span of life (ayuh) and enjoyment (bhoga) of worldly things. Hence, dhyana is also very helpful in resolving the problem of karma and ending the chain of transmigration.

Dhyana is defined in the Yogasutras (3.2) as one pointedness of the mind (eka-tanata), achieved by fixing it upon one object or image. Concentration (dharana), meditation (dhyana) and self-absorption (samadhi) are considered the internal limbs (antaranga) of yoga practice. Their combined practice is known as samyama or an integrated practice of concentrated meditation, which leads to a heightened state of self-absorption and cessation of all mental modifications. Antarangam also means the mind or consciousness. Dhyana is very helpful in reining the mind, knowing the mind and transcending it through self-absorption.

The underlying idea of dhyana, though not the word itself, is found already in the Rig-Veda (see dhi, brahman). The expression dhyana is first to be met in the Upanishadic literature, starting with the archaic Chandogya-Upanishad (7.6.1,2; 7.1; 26,1) and Kaushitaki-Upanishad (3.2 3 4 6). In the Brihadaranyaka-Upanishad (4.5.6), which is generally held to be the earliest scripture of this genre, the verbal form nididhyasitavyah (“to be contemplated”) is used in the sense of deeply pondering the Self (atman), whereupon the Self becomes known.

It is in the Chandogya (7.6.1) that we read “meditation is more than thought (citta),” and that “the earth meditates as it were (iva), the heavens meditate as it were, the waters meditate as it were, the mountains meditate as it were, deities and humans meditate as it were.” This suggests that meditation is a form of abiding, of simply being present, which certainly describes an important feature of the meditative state. In the same Upanishadic passage, we learn that true greatness among men is a result of having obtained “a share of meditation as it were.”

According to the Yoga-Sutra (I.39; II.l1), the initial purpose of meditation is to intercept the flux of ordinary mental activity (vritti), of which he distinguishes five categories: sensory knowledge (pramana), misconception (viparyaya), conceptualization (vikalpa), sleep (nidra), and memory (smriti). Whereas the first two types of mental activity are, by and large, disposed of through the technique of sensory inhibition and concentration, the conceptualizing or imaginative aspect of the mind, as ,well as sleep, are gradually brought under control through the meditative process. The final obstacle to inwardness (pratyak-cetana) is the ever-active memory, which gives rise to thoughts and internal imagery. However, memory is only fully disabled in the highest type of ecstatic realization (i.e., asamprajnata-samadhi). Here the restriction of the subliminal activators (samskara), which are ultimately responsible for the generation of mental activity, is accomplished.

Dhyana or Meditation to Connect with the Universal Consciousness

Meditation is observing the inward and outward movement of thoughts that are coming and going out of the mind, with silence (maunam), stability (dhiram) and detachment (vairagyam). According to Hindu theories of creation, all the beings and worlds emanated from Lord Brahma or Brahman through meditation only. Its mysteries and its dimensions can be comprehended in transcendental states of self-absorption which is possible through meditation only. Since each individual is a carbon copy of the universe, by understanding ourselves we can understand the manifest universe. Thus our ancient rishis practiced meditation and contemplation to discover the truths concerning themselves and the world around them. In their deep meditative states they envisioned the Vedic wisdom and Universal Self. Since the knowledge poured forth into their receptive and stabilized minds from the universal consciousness, on its own, without any egoistic intention or selfishness on their part, it is considered as not man made (apaurusheya), but divine and truthful (pramana).

All thoughts and knowledge exist in the universe. We do not create thoughts, although we erroneously believe so, just as we are not the real doers of our actions, as declared in the Bhagavadgita, but mere instruments in the hands of God. We can only receive them and make meaning out of them according to the flow of our inclinations, intentions, intellect and attitudes. The most exalted spiritual truths are revealed to us in our moments of reverential silence, when our minds are focused, the senses and the self-sense are asleep and the desires are extinguished. The six Hindu schools of philosophy are so called darshanas (visions) because they are products of such receptive process in which knowledge was envisioned (darsanam) in the pit of the human mind that was untainted by the impurities of worldly life. While the followers of respective schools may argue or quarrel about the merits and demerits of their respective systems of philosophy, from a spiritual perspective, we hold them to be different standpoints of the same universal knowledge revealed to man at different points of time in history, and like any other standpoint they represent a particular view of the reality and do not wholly represent the universal reality itself, which is well rounded, eternal, infinite and absolute in itself without divisions, grades and contradictions.

The Vedic Concept of Dhyana

The Vedic seers did not use the word dhyana in the early Vedic theology. But through their own personal experience, they were aware of the importance of the mind and its ability to manifest things. They viewed creation as the mental manifestation of the Brahman or Isvara, the universal Self and they believe through austerities and penances man could acquire similar potencies. The creation of an alternate heaven(trisanku) by sage Viswamitra is a case in point. According to Jenine Miller, a British scholar, the Vedic prayer was a form of dhyana in which the two sense functions, “vision and sound, seership and singing are intimately connected.”

The Vedic concept of dhayna or meditation seems to have evolved gradually with the emergence of Upanishadic thought and the idea that man personified the entire universe within himself and by himself and that hidden deep within him was an eternal principle that was Universal Self in its individual aspect. Either man (purusha) was a projection of the universe in its own mode or the universe was a projection of the individual self (purusha) in its own form. Both views enjoyed patronage of scholarly minds. If the former was true, our existence was ephemeral and part of a much larger dream, and If the latter was true, then the universe might be an illusion. In either case the world seemed to be unreal or illusory, a view that caught the attention of Hindu scholars for centuries and found its way into the monistic (advauta) philosophy of Shankara.

Meditation gives us an opportunity to be self-aware even in stressful situations. With the help of dhyana, you can observe your own feelings, emotions, thoughts, reactions, responses, sensations, the motives hidden behind your actions, and your expectations. You can realize how you subject yourself to suffering and anxiety in various situations. With the help of dhyana, you can learn to control your thoughts, cultivate discernment and respond to situations arising in your life with intelligence and thoughtful consideration. For this, you do not have to find a specific place and time to practice dhyana. With practice, you can learn to enter into a meditative state wherever you are and whenever you find time to relax. You can even make your reading or television-watching an an opportunity to observe your thoughts and see how you mind reacts to the incoming perceptions. With dhyana, anyone can cope with their impulsive behavior and unwanted, negative emotions.

Vedic meditation: the benefits and mantras you need to know

The benefits of Vedic meditation are multiple: better sleep, relaxation and lower stress. Meditation practioner Ann Vrlak explains how to practise this ancient meditative form and guides you on the power of the Vedic mantra…

Vedic meditation is an ancient form of meditation practice – in fact, it’s the very first. The many styles of meditation that you see today all originated from this original practice. The source of Vedic meditation is the Vedas, a series of texts that form the basis of Indian philosophy, all branches of yoga, and the science of Ayurvedic medicine. For centuries, all three of these disciplines have had an enormous impact on people’s health and well-being around the world.

The Vedas lay out a comprehensive path to a happy and meaningful life through experiential learning. When you practise Vedic meditation, you will go on a journey of self-discovery and apply what you learn to all aspects of your daily living.

So, what is Vedic meditation?

This form of meditation is centered on a mantra – a phrase that is repeated either out loud or silently in your mind. “Mantra” is made up of two Sanskrit words: “man” which means mind, and “tra” which means vehicle or transport.

So, a mantra is a vehicle to take your mind from one place to another: perhaps from the busy activity of your day-to-day mind to a deeper, quieter place that is often covered up by that activity.

The most ancient mantras are in the Sanskrit language because Sanskrit is what’s known as a ‘vibrational’ language. What does that mean exactly? It means that the sound of the words, their vibrations, create the experience of the words’ meaning.

For example, the Sanskrit word for peace is “shanti.” It’s said that when “shanti” is repeated, the sound itself invokes the feeling of peace. Or when the word for compassion, “karuna,” is repeated, you will be filled with a feeling of compassion.

“When you practise Vedic meditation, you will go on a journey of self-discovery and apply what you learn to all aspects of your daily living.”

And you have probably already had experiences of how relaxing sounds can be. The sound of a running river. Or birds singing. In fact, you don’t relax through thinking about the river or the bird, but from the sounds themselves. Similarly, mantra meditation gives your mind something innately healthy to do – a break from a busy mind.

It’s worth pointing out that Vedic meditation also helps you to be more mindful and do one thing at a time (something which is deeply calming). Indeed, studies have shown that multitasking is actually stressful for our minds and bodies and, in fact, it may not even be possible.

What are the benefits of Vedic meditation?

Before explaining how to practise Vedic meditation, let’s take a look at itsmain benefits. If you feel you are healthy, what would that look like? A generally healthy person would:

Sleep well

Vedic meditation nurtures a healthy nervous system. It activates your parasympathetic nervous system, the part of your body that governs relaxation and rejuvenation. Additionally, it helps to reduce stress chemicals that accumulate in your body, and allows a deeper, more restful sleep.

Feel relaxed and be able to relax when needed

Anxiety and stress are epidemics in our modern world. The relaxing effects of Vedic meditation can be used any time you’re aware of being anxious or stressed. And the healing, anti-anxiety effects build over time and lower your overall stress level.

Think clearly and creatively

Have you ever noticed that when you’re anxious it’s hard to think? The ability to relax in the moment and have a generally low stress level allows your brain to work better. Areas across your brain work together more efficiently so you are more creative and productive. When your nervous system is rejuvenated, you have more resources at your fingertips to respond to your life wisely and compassionately.

Be emotionally balanced and calm

Your emotions have physical and mental components that can become a vicious cycle, creating upset or even intense suffering. Just as you’re thinking becomes clearer and more holistic through Vedic meditation, your emotions also become clearer and more grounded.

Have all the energy you need

Because Vedic meditation activates the rest and rejuvenate part of your brain, because you’re sleeping well, and because you’re reducing your stress level, your energy levels should soar.

Be content

Taken all together, doesn’t this sound like a recipe for contentment? You are physically rested and relaxed, and your thinking and emotions are clear and calm, supporting you in your best intentions. All of these things make your connections and relationships with people easier and more fulfilling. And, you have energy for the things that matter to you most.

How to practise Vedic meditation

First, it’s important to know you don’t need any religious or spiritual belief to do Vedic meditation. All you need is a mantra, a few minutes of quiet and a spirit of adventure. 

As I mentioned earlier in this article, traditional mantras are in Sanskrit. Give one of the mantras below a try. If for any reason you’re not comfortable with them, you can use words in your own language like “peace” or “compassion.”

Vedic meditation: step-by-step instructions

Decide on a length of time to practice and do your best to stick to it. You can start with 10 minutes and build up to 40.

1. Choose your mantra. Here are a few traditional Sanskrit mantras.

OM. The primordial mantra, the sound of the universe or, in Indian philosophy, the sound of pure consciousness. Repeating this mantra can help you let go of personal worries and connect with the universal sound.

SO HUM is another ancient mantra which means I AM THAT.  Not only can you connect with pure consciousness, you can experience yourself as that consciousness.

OM MANI PADME HUM is a lovely mantra meaning “the jewel in the lotus.” Lotus flowers grow in mud. This mantra invokes your power of transformation, your ability to overcome and find the jewel in difficulty.

2. Find a quiet space

When you’re first learning any kind of meditation, it’s best to take time away from your usual daily activities in a quiet space. It can be as simple as a comfortable cushion or chair in the corner of a room. As you become more experienced, it will be easier to close your eyes for a few minutes of practice wherever you are.

3. Sit and connect with your body

Take a comfortable sitting posture, physically relax as much as you can, and let your attention gently scan your body. Take a few deep breaths, letting go a bit of any tension or stress each time you exhale.

4. Use your mantra

Bring your mantra to mind and, if you like, its meaning as well. Know there’s nothing you need to do or create, you’re just repeating your chosen mantra. Start by repeating it softly, out loud. Focus on the feeling of the sound, how the vibrations feel in your throat, your heart, your stomach – wherever you feel it most.

“Vedic meditation nurtures a healthy nervous system and helps to reduce stress chemicals. It also allows a deeper, more restful sleep.”

When you find that your attention has drifted to a memory or a plan or anything else, that’s all part of the practice. Notice where your attention is and gently come back to repeating your mantra. After a moment or two, start to repeat the mantra more and more quietly, until you are repeating it silently inside.

If you like, you can lengthen the silence between the repetitions, with the mantra coming out of and going back in to silence. If you find you become distracted in longer silences, come back to repeating the mantra more often.

5. Returning to body awareness

When your practice time is almost done, let go of the mantra and bring your attention back to the physical sensations in your body. Again, gently scan your body and notice if areas of your body feel different than before. Also, notice the state of your mind and your emotions just for a moment. There’s no right or wrong way to feel, just notice what is here for you.

6. Close with a breath

When you’re ready, end with another few deep relaxing breaths.

The wrap: Vedic meditation

Just like any other activity or skill you learn, getting the full benefits of Vedic meditation does take time. However, by practising it you will become sensitive to subtle body, mind and emotional states – becoming a keen observer of yourself. So, you may notice quite quickly small shifts in your stress level, mood and well-being as you practice.

Meditation in Hinduism

Hinduism is the Sanatana Dharma. It is without beginning or end.  The Vedas are the source of the Sanatana Dharma. The Divine person –Lord Vishnu was alone. He felt alone. He said, “I am one, let there be many –EkohamBahusyamएकोहमबहुस्याम”

The Universe, which was non-existent came into existence. The Veda means wisdom. It is called the Vedanta. (The Veda meaning wisdom, anta meaning end) The entire teaching of the Veda can be summed up in a grand sentence, “Tat TvamAsi –तत्त्वम्असि“That Thou Art”, AhamBrahmasmi – अहंब्रह्मास्मि–I am Brahman.”

So, the Veda declared, “I am spirit (soul) living in a body, I am not the body. The body will die but I shall not die as I am the soul spirit.” Body will die, as it is composed of Pancha Bhuta –the five elements namely space, air, fire, water, earth. Soul is the fragmentation of the Divine person, Lord Vishnu who was in existence before the Creation of Universe. Lord Krishna in the Gita said that, “Soul- the sword cannot pierce Him, the fire cannot burn Him, the water cannot melt Him, the air cannot dry Him.”

Soul is divine, pure, perfect, immortal and infinite. Every soul is a circle whose circumference is nowhere, but the centre is located in the body. On death, the centre changes to another body. The present is determined by past actions and the future is to be determined by the present.

The Supreme lies within. God is the consciousness within.The Self enlivens the mind and intellect from experience to experience. God exists both as a manifest and unmanifest. The whole world emerges from God (Brahman). It merges in Brahman (God). Om is the most powerful ultimate knowledge of Brahman (God). Before existence of the Universe there was voice Om. Om is the bow, the Self – the arrow; Brahman (God) is target. Om stands for Brahman, the Supreme Reality. The arrow is mind. Target is Brahman. Om stands for pure consciousness. The human’s mission is to discover the Supreme “Self”. Brahman is everywhere, all pervading. He alone exists. Brahman is the primeval source of activity. That which enlivens actions and perceptions, emotions and thoughts. It enlivens the mind and intellect.

Meditation is the art of focusing the mind on the thought of the Supreme to exclusion of all other thoughts. One has to merge with Brahman (God). Like a river merging with the ocean our goal is to realise Him and become one with Him. A human being is born with desires. His mission is to exhaust the desires. Realise the Self within. Attain enlightenment. Self is attained by mediation followed by practice of renunciation and burning desires. Thus, purify the mind. Attain enlightenment. Attain immortality. Brahman can be attained only by direct perceptionby the pure in heart. Meditation helps in perception. The person comes in direct harmony with himself and the cosmic Universe. Brahman is said to be present in the hearts of all, but He is subtler than the subtlest.

In the Gita Lord Krishna said, “I am the Self, seated in the hearts of all creatures. I am the beginning, the middle and the end of all beings –ahamatmagudakesasarva-bhutasaya-sthitah-ahamadiscamadhyamca-bhutanam anta evaca–अहंआत्मागुडाकेशसर्वभुताशयस्थितः/  अहंआदिश्चमाध्यम्चभूतानांअंतऐवच//”

He prescribed the Niskamakarmayoga (selfless action) with the equanimity of mind. The mind alone is one’s friend as well as one’s enemy. By regular practice of meditation conquer the mind. Attach mind to God. Fix the thoughts on Krishna glories. As one can see the reflection of the man in a lake when water is still, one can realise Atman (Self) and God when the mind becomes tranquil. Meditation is the Science of God. Realized/ enlightened souls had prescribed various prescriptions for meditation. Lord Krishna Himself had advised the practice of meditation to His devotee Arjuna as below:

1.  To sit in solitude and alone. Have the mind of a Yogi(Practitioner) and senses under control, free from desires      and attachments to possessions; try constantly to contem-plate on the Supreme Being, beloved deity, Lotus flower, Om, light in the centre of two eyebrows. Seat should neither be too high not too low. Cover the seat with Kusa grass and a cleaned cloth.

2.  Sit in a comfortable position. Inhale and exhale. Breathing exercises  two to five times. Sing song of love of soul for God. Chant Om. Deep short meditation is better. Concentrate the mind onsingle object controlling the thoughts and activities of the senses. Self-control is necessary for self-purification. In the beginning, focus on a particular part of deity such as the feet or face forgetting everything. Contemplate on a single object.

3.  Hold the waist, spine, neck and head erect, motionless, steady, fix the eyes and the mind steadily on the tip (or front) of the nose. Don’t look around.

4.  Be serene and fearless, with firm vow practise celibacy. Have the mind under control. Think of God i.e Deity of one’s choice. Fix the goal to reach Supreme God i.e. realize God, i.e., Deity of one’s choice – Lord Krishna, Lord Rama, Ma Kali. Concentrate on the glory and the virtues of Lord. Devote himself to God. Shuteyes to worldly affairs.

5.  Constantly apply his mind on God. Thus mind is subdued one attains everlasting peace consisting of supreme bliss which abides in God.

6.  Be moderate in eating, recreation, working, sleeping, walking and every aspect of life. Neither overeat nor excessively too fast, neither to sleep too much nor to be sleepless.Be moderate in all activities. Meditation destroys all sorrows. Mind is thus disciplined. One becomes content in Parama Brahman (God) who is holding God with a purified intellect. He thus becomes free from the feeling of “I and My.” He sees that Atman is present in all beings as fire is present in all woods / stones. He brings the wandering mind gently to the contemplation of the SupremeBeing. He sees God in everything and everything in God (Lord Krishna).

7.  A lamp in a windless place does not flicker. Whenever the fickle and unsteady mind wanders, one should subdue it then and there and bring back to the reflection of Lord Krishna, the Supreme personality of Godhead. The kind of concentration on God will make him one with Brahma and he will attain bliss

8.  Anugraha (grace) of the Lord is essential to make this effort for meditation a success.

9.  God’s graceis limitless. He showers His grace on His lover (devotee) both in favourable and unfavourable circumstances. It is for the lover to perceive the grace of all Lord in all conditions of life. For this pursue the path of devotion / love. Arjuna, lover of Lord Krishna hadwitnessed the cosmic Form of Lord Krishna. It is through love, not by rituals and or austerities or knowledge; one can get grace of Lord Krishna. Lord Krishna Himself said, “Thy knowledge man.” I value not, it is your love I fear. It is your love that shakes my throne, bring me to human tears. Love makes Him take human form, play and live with you. Vrinda’s girl had not any knowledge, but they loved Lord Krishna and got Him.

10.All actions whether spiritual or mundane (worldly) should be done with absolute devotion to God. A devotee sees himself as well as others as a manifestation of the Lord. Then, all malice is removed. Behold the Lord everywhere and everyone.

There are other methods of meditation. Saints and enlightened souls of Hinduism have prescribed different methods, but basics remain the same. Maharishi Patanjali prescribed pre eight steps for meditation:

1.Yama, or moral conduct;  2. Niyama, or spiritual practices; 3. Right postures; 4. Pranayama or Yogi breathing –inhalation and exhalation; 5. Pratyahara – sense withdrawal; 6. Concentration –Dharana; 7. Dhyana or meditation; 8. Self-consciousness still state of mind; and 9. Samadhi –super consciousness of mind (not to be in conscious or sub conscious)

There are seven chakras –the energy centres in our body. They are named: Mooladhar (the root base of Spine), Svadhishthana (the Sacred Prostatic), Manipura (the Solar Plexus -Naval), Anahata (the Heart), Visshuddha (the throat chakra), Ajna (the Third Eye) and Sahasrara Padma (the Crown Chakra).

Sri Paramahansa Yogananda in Autobiography of a Yogi, Yogada Satsanga Society of India and Self Realisation of Fellowship had made popular “Kriya-Yoga”, ancient Yogi Meditation worldwide taught by Swami Yuketewar, his Guru Lahari Mahasya and his guru Mahaavtar Babaji.

Sri Ramakrishna Paramahansa was talked to Mother Kali. He fed Mother Kali. He had advised meditation.

Benefit of meditation –free the soulfrom the bondage of the mundane world, help to heal, remove the misunderstanding, achieve success, gains from positive thinking, reduce stress, develop intuition, get rid of addiction and other multiple desires, happiness, humbleness, better control of emotions and physical well-being.

To conclude, just think of Om –Aum the first vowel sound before the creation of this Universe. Chant mentally while working one will have calmness of the body and the mind.

Sing and listen to the songs of love ofGod.

Can chant internally:

ShShivoham -शिवोऽहम्Aham–अहंBrahmasmi-ब्रह्मास्मिor name of any Deity to keep the mind and heart cool. Engage in service, japa and alsostudy.

How do you meditate?

There’s no one correct way to meditate. That’s because meditation can take many different forms. Experts have analyzed meditation practices and found that some common processes happen across different meditation forms. These are:

Body-centered meditation. This is sometimes called self-scanning. Doing this involves focusing on the physical sensations you can feel throughout your body.

Contemplation. This usually involves concentrating on a question or some kind of contradiction without letting your mind wander.

Emotion-centered meditation. This kind of meditation has you focus on a specific emotion. For example, focusing on how to be kind to others or on what makes you happy in your life.

Mantra meditation. This kind of meditation involves repeating (either aloud or in your head) and focusing on a specific phrase or sound.

Meditation with movement. This type of meditation can involve focusing on breathing, holding your breath or performing specific body movements. It can also involve walking while focusing on what you observe around you.

Mindfulness meditation. This form of meditation is about staying aware of what’s happening at the moment rather than letting your mind wander and worrying about the past or future. It can also involve a similar approach as body-centered meditation, using what you feel throughout your body as a foundation for your awareness of the world around you.

Visual-based meditation. This kind of meditation involves focusing on something you can see (either with your eyes or by concentrating on a mental image).

Why does meditation work?

Thanks to advances in technology, researchers and healthcare providers can see how meditation affects your brain. However, to understand some of these changes, it helps to know a little about brain structure.

In your brain, you have billions of neurons, which are cells that use electrical and chemical signals to send signals to each other. One neuron connects to thousands of others, which is how your neurons form networks across different parts of your brain. Those networks form different areas of your brain, which have different jobs and specialties.

Multiple research studies have found that people who meditate regularly have certain differences in their brain structure. Those changes usually involve brain tissue that’s denser or certain areas of the brain that are larger than expected, which is a sign that the neurons there have more connections to each other and the connections are stronger.

The affected areas of the brain are usually those that manage or control your senses (vision, hearing, etc.), your ability to think and concentrate, and your ability to process emotions. That means the brains of people who meditate regularly are healthier and less likely to show age-related loss of function. They also have a stronger ability to deal with and process negative emotions like fear, anger and grief.

How do I start daily meditation?

With so many different types of meditation to choose from, it can feel daunting to know which one you’re going to like best or will be most helpful for you. Fortunately, there are plenty of ways to narrow it down.

Research. Learning about the different types of meditation is a good first step to choosing one. You can do that research in books from a local library or bookstore or online from many sources. Cleveland Clinic’s Health Essentials page has dozens of articles that can offer tips, information and other resources to help you choose.

Talk to your healthcare provider. Your primary care provider or a mental health provider are both great sources of information on meditation. They can help you find meditation programs and instructors in your area.

Ask for guidance. Whether it’s from people you know or people with similar interests online, plenty of people know about and practice meditation. If you don’t know anyone directly, websites and social platforms like YouTube or Reddit may be a good place to start. There are even smartphone apps that can help you meditate.

Once you find a type of meditation to try, the following tips can help:

Learn what you like. Some people prefer meditating in the morning and others at night. Pick whichever time works best for you!

Make the time. Set aside time in your day for meditation and make it a part of your routine. Regular meditation is the key to getting the greatest benefits out of this practice.

Set the surroundings. Meditation is best in a place that’s quiet, calming and comfortable. Some forms of meditation involve sitting up, and others involve lying down. Some even require walking, so you may want to find a park or hiking trail that you like.

Don’t be afraid to ask for help. If meditation doesn’t come easily, you’re certainly not alone. Explore resources, either in person or online, and ask for guidance. There are plenty of people who are passionate about meditation who can offer input. You may even find a meditation instructor or class near you.

A note from Cleveland Clinic

Meditation is an ancient practice that comes in many forms and types. While meditation historically was a religious practice, you don’t have to be religious to do it and experience the benefits yourself. Thanks to advances in medical technology and science, experts now better understand how meditation affects your brain and body. And research shows there are many benefits — for your mind and body alike — that come with regular meditation. Whether you’re familiar with meditation or starting new, there’s no shortage of information and resources to help you take a deep breath, focus and find a way to make meditation work for you.

What is Dhyana? Meditation in Hinduism

What is meditation?

Meditation or dhyana is a state of being where one remains observant as conscience. This is the original form of a being.

Meditation in Vedas and Upnishads

The existence of meditation can also be found in the oldest literature of the world. According to Kaushitaki Upanishad, 3.2, meditation is – मनसा ध्यानमित्येकभूयं वै प्राणाः With mind, meditate on me as being prana.

Bhagwat Gita

In chapter six of Bhagwat Gita, Sri Krishna describes meditation to Arjun. Where He says, यथा दीपो निवातस्थो नेङ्गते सोपमा स्मृता। योगिनो यतचित्तस्य युञ्जतो योगमात्मनः

Yoga Sutras of Patanjali

Chapter -1, Samadhi Pada, explains the state of samadhi in the following sutras, where the practitioner reaches a state of sampragyat samadhi- श्रद्धावीर्यस्मृतिसमाधिप्रज्ञापूर्वक इतरेषाम्॥२०॥


Meditation is described as jhāna in Buddhism.


Four types of dhyana are explained in Jaina texts: Arta-dhyana Raudra-dhyana Dharmya-dhyana Shukla-dhyana


According to Kathopanishad, dhyana is – ये ये कम दुर्लभ मर्त्यलोके | षर्वन् कमन् छ्हन्दतह् प्रर्थयस्व ||

Taittiriya Upanishad

Taittiriya Upanishad explains meditation – टद् ब्रह्मनह् परिमर इति उपसित | पर्येनम् म्रियन्ते द्विशन्तह् सपत्नह् ||

Mundaka Upanishad

यथा नद्यह् स्यन्दमनह् समुद्रे आस्तम् गच्छन्ति नमरुपे विहय ; टथ विद्वन् नमरुपद् विमुक्तह् परत्परम् पुरुशम् उपैति दिव्यम्

Chandogya Upanishad

As per the verse 3.14.1 of Chandoya Upnishad, meditation is, “On Him should one meditate in tranquility.”