Hindu Of Universe

“God’s light is within you, It never leaves you.”

Flowers remain an integral part of Hinduism with the main Hindu prayer rites called puja, which literally means “the flower act”.

Flowers are used as an offering to the gods as people believe that by offering flowers, the deity grants good health, wealth and prosperity.

There is a specific flower of each individual god.

It is also said that the fragrance that comes with the flower are what pleases the gods and no Hindu worship is complete without the offering of a specific flower to different deities.

With a slight similarity to Buddhism, the lotus for example, has a deep rooted association with purity, beauty, youthfulness, and fertility.

In the Holy Scripture, The Bhagavad Gita, followers are instructed to model themselves around the lotus flower in order to maintain their sense of purity.

The lotus can be seen in Hindu temples where the goddess of wealth and prosperity, Lakshmi sits on.

Offer her a Lotus flower during Diwali and she in return will grant wealth and good fortune.

One of the most prominent gods, Lord Ganesha favours Marigold flowers.

It is said that Marigold is the only flower of the gods that can be divided into its petals.

It is widely used to make garlands for gods and goddesses in the Hindu religion.

This flower is considered a love charm and is also used in weddings.

While it may be a Christian tradition to throw rice at weddings, Hindus throw fresh flower petals as a sign of good luck. 

Why Are Flowers Offered To God?

In a way, offering a flower in worship represents the devotion and loyalty that a person has for his Lord.

It is believed that when you try to please the Gods by offering flowers, the deity becomes pleased and showers the devotee with wealth, happiness, prosperity and health.

Why do we use flowers in prayer?

Flowers remain an integral part of Hinduism with the main Hindu prayer rites called puja, which literally means “the flower act”. 

Flowers are used as an offering to the gods as people believe that by offering flowers, the deity grants good health, wealth and prosperity.

Why are flowers offered in the temple?

Be it the construction of home/office, decorating it, conducting a pooja or whatnot.

In today’s Vastu Shastra, Acharya Indu Prakash talks about the flowers that kept in the temple.

Offering flowers to God in the temple during worship is considered very good because flowers are something that is close to God.

Which flower is offered to which God?

Marigold is the only flower of the gods that can be distributed with its petals and hence is considered unique.

Apart from all the flowers that come under ‘Tulsidal,’ all others can be offered to The Vighnaharta.

That being said, Red Hibiscus is indeed the most preferred flower offered to lord Ganesha.

What does it mean to offer flowers?

In today’s society, flowers are given to loved ones to help communicate human emotions.

Whether it be to express your undying love or gratitude for a friend, flowers can be given to anyone at anytime.

Which God is offered roses?

Offering a garland of red roses or red hibiscus to deity Durga removes all troubles in one’s life.

What flowers represent faith?

Faith and hope both are expressed with the blue iris.

Wisdom and my compliments are associated with the purple iris.

Yellow iris can represent passion, while white represents purity.

Which flowers are used to worship Lord Shiva?

Since then, Dhatura became Lord Shiva’s favorite flower.

Hence, Dhatura is offered to Lord Shiva during Shiv Puja to get rid of the poison of ego, rivalry, envy, and hatred .

While there are some other Shiva flowers like Akand, Bael patra, ketaki flower is never used in the worship of Shiva.

Can we offer flowers to God?

By offering flowers, you can show your utmost devotion and love to your deity. The fragrance of the flowers lends a positive and aesthetic vibe to the place of worship.

It helps in attracting positive energy and creating an ideal environment for prayer and worshipping.

Can we offer Brahmakamal to God?

The plant holds immense sacred value in the region.

Being regarded as a spiritual flowerit is offered to Lord Vishnu at Badrinath shrine and Lord Shiva at Kedarnath shrine.

What flowers represent the Holy Spirit?

What flower symbolizes heaven?

One uniquely heavenly symbol is that of the downwardly inclined flowers of the daffodil, “Mary looking down to us from heaven.”

Other uniquely heavenly symbols are those such as corn flower, “Mary’s Crown”, and the bleeding heart, begonia (buds) and caladium (leaves), all symbolizing the Immaculate Heart of Mary.

Can we offer rose flower to Lord Shiva?

Laurier rose flower, also known as Karveer flower, helps in killing bacteria and keeping diseases away. 

If an ill person offers Lord Shiva this flower and worships him with full devotion, then he will surely get cured.

Can you offer rose to Lord Shiva?

Rose flowers are a symbol of love.

If you will offer these flowers to Lord Shiva, it means that you have completed the yagna and will gain success.

Can we offer white flowers to Lord Shiva?

Kewda or Champa
We all know that Lord Shiva is fond of flowers. 

It is believed that Lord Shiva should only be offered flowers that are white in colour.

Kewda and Champa flowers are said to be cursed by Lord Shiva and should never be offered to Lord Shiva.

Should we pluck flowers for God?

No it is not a Phallic symbol.

Lord Shiva has 3 forms- Nirguna, Saguna and Nirguna-Saguna.

Why does a plant have to bear pain by having its flowers plucked every time a puja is being done? Plants don’t have volition, so they can’t choose or be forced to worship.

Which flower is offered to Lord Durga?

Hibiscus flower tops the list when it comes to the worship of Maa Durga.

She is manifested as Shailputri during the first day of Navratri, and hibiscus is most endearing to her.

Can we pluck Brahma Kamal?

Can we pluck brahma kamal? The flowers can be plucked and kept in a vase.

What can I do with Brahma Kamal?

May treat cough and cold
The rhizomes, flowers and leaves of the Brahma Kamal flower may help treat cough and cold.

The anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects of the flower can help reduce inflammation in the respiratory tract and prevent the multiplication of microbes, thus treating cough and cold.

Where should Brahma Kamal be kept?

To grow Brahma Kamal, get leaf cuttings and insert them in well draining soil, keep in a location with indirect sunlight and water only when the upper layer of the soil dries out.

For Brahma Kamal Plant care, it should be protected from direct sunlight, overwatering & repotted from time to time.

What do flowers symbolize in Bible?

What does the flower symbolize in the Bible?

Flowers symbolize beauty, fragility, and love of God, yet, they also represent the fall of humankind.

The beauty of a flower fades and eventually dies.


It is Navratri time and as is known it calls for fasting, rituals, garba, festivities, flower decorations and what not, all in the honour of the supreme mother goddess of Hindus, Goddess Durga.

These nine days of worshipping and ceremonies bring in a lot of positive energy and purity.

Just like during every other occasion, be it a wedding or any celebration, flowers play a significant role in Hindu worshipping too.

In Hindu religion, it is believed that flowers serve as great mediums through which one can communicate to god.

Similarly, flowers play a crucial role during Navratris too. Let’s find out more on the significance of flowers attached to these holy nine days.


As per the Hindu scriptures, Tamasic, Rajasic and Sattvic are the three major aspects of life. Navratri is the time to honour these aspects and their divine source, Goddess Durga.

Even flowers have been distinguished on the basis of their origin, colour, fragrance and shape, and are categorized into Tamas, Rajas and Sattva.

Out of the nine days of Navratri, for the first three days one should worship Goddess Kali in order to transcend the Tamasic or devilish nature that one may have.

Offering Tamas flowers like China rose, Ketaki etc to the goddess can be a good option during these days.

The next three days should be spent in worshipping Goddess Lakshmi so as to get over the Rajasic or turbulent nature one may possess. Rajas flowers like Red lotus, Trumpet flowers etc should be your choice of offering to the divine goddess.

Worshipping Goddess Saraswati during the last three days of Navratri can help cultivate and strengthen Sattvic tendencies and Sattva flowers like Jasmine, White lotus etc can be the best offering to the holy goddess.


Ever wondered why we always garland our goddess during Navratris or, as a matter of fact, on any other day too?

It is said that the colour and fragrance of flowers attracts the Tejtattva or the ‘fire principle waves’ from the atmosphere towards the goddesses’ idol thereby awakening Devittatva or the ‘goddess principle’ within it.

Thus, a divine principle is transferred to the whole house where the idol is placed in.

This tattva or principle purifies the whole house including the souls of people residing in it.

Garlands made out of Marigold flowers are considered the most auspicious and hence are most often used in garlanding of the goddesses during Navratris.


Lotus can rightly be called one of the most beautiful flowers of the world.

This divine looking bloom is holiest of all the flowers for Hindus and is symbolic of the true soul of an individual.

It also symbolises prosperity, beauty and fertility.

It is considered auspicious to offer this flower to the goddesses during Navratri as each one of them has a special connection with this flower.

While Goddess Durga was adorned by a garland of lotus flowers by Varuna, Goddess Saraswati is associated to the white lotus.

Goddess Lakshmi sits on a full-bloomed Lotus flower andholds a lotus in her right hand.

She is often called by names associated to or inspired by Lotus such as Padmini which means ‘possessing Lotus’ or Padmesthita which means ‘standing on Lotus’.

We cannot deny the importance of flowers during Navratris as offering flowers to our goddesses is considered an important part of Hindu worship.

It is, however, advisable to offer flowers with mild smell as compared to those with strong or no smell.

Besides this, mutilated flowers should be strictly avoided and only fully blossomed ones should be chosen for something as holy and sacred as ‘Navratri Puja’.

May Goddess Durga bless us all with health, wealth and prosperity this Navratri.



About Flowers used in Hindu Rituals and Pujas

In Hinduism, flowers constitute an important offering made to the deities.

Flowers are used while doing puja at home, temples and at sacred places.

In fact, rarely do we come across a puja in Hindu religion without flowers.

The idol or image of the deity in temple and home is decorated with garlands of flowers and leaves.

Flowers are also placed at the feet of deity and the idol is also showered with flowers.

Details about the types of flowers that can be used for puja and the method in which they are to be used in puja and rituals are mentioned in the scriptures.

Some flowers are associated by a particular deity; while a particular flower is never used due to a curse etc.

Generally, flowers with strong odor are not used.

Similarly, flowers without fragrance are also not used.

Flowers that are not fully blossomed are not used.

Mutilated and flowers eaten by insects are avoided.

Flowers grown in a garden is considered apt for puja.

Flowers collected from forest are also used.

Flowers used in a Hindu puja are classified into Sattva, Rajas and Tamas.

The classification is based on their color, fragrance, shape and origin. Sattva and Rajas flowers are used in daily worship.

Tamas flowers are avoided and some are used during festivals.

Flowers like Arka, Nandyavartham, drona, white lotus, jasmine, coral tree flowers etc are considered as Sattva flowers.

The Rajas flowers include Red lotus, trumpet flowers, white thorn apple flowers etc.

The Tamas flowers include ketaki, China rose, cotton plant, Kasa grass etc.


List of Flowers Loved by Hindu Gods

Since ancient times, flowers have been a popular gift or offering.

It is believed that if a person with righteous deeds offers flowers and heartfelt prayers to the gods, then God will bestow their blessings on them.

Flowers, in particular are an important part of all ceremonies in Hindu culture.

Offering flowers at the feet of God’s idols is a symbolic act of offering the purest and sincerest prayers to the highest power.

Each god or goddess has their own preference when it comes to flowers.

Therefore, each flower has the ability to attract a certain god.

It is believed that each person can attract a lot of happiness, wealth and well-being by offering certain flowers to certain gods who have certain flowers dear to them.

Here are the list of flowers for each God or Goddess:

Dhatura (Lord Shiva)

According to the Hindu religious text Vamana Purana, Dhatura appeared on the chest of Shiva when he drank poison that was churned out of the ocean by the gods and Demons.

Since then, it is his favorite flower and is offered to him to get rid of ego, envy, rivalry out of one’s life.

Red Hibiscus (Goddess Kali)

The flower represents Maa Kali’s tongue and the color denotes her fierceness.

Thus, in West Bengal, red Hibiscus flower is made into a garland of 108 flowers to be offered to the Goddess.

Parijata (Lord Vishnu)

Parijata flower or Night-flowering coral Jasmine whose roots are in heaven.

This flower is believed to be the favorite of Lord Vishnu, Goddess Laxmi and their incarnations.

It is believed that this tree was churned out of the ocean by the Gods and demons. Afterwards, Lord Vishnu brought it to heaven because of its beauty and fragrant smell, which would spread the scent all over.

It is hence considered his favorite flower.

Lotus (Goddess Laxmi)

The Goddess of wealth and prosperity, Laxmi sits on a lotus flower and it can thus be concluded that it’s her favorite.

If you offer a Lotus flower to goddess Laxmi during Diwali or Laxmi Pooja, her gratification will be returned by granting you wealth and good fortune.

If you keep a lotus seed mala or rosary in the temple of your home, it will please her.

Marigold (Lord Ganesha)

All red colored flowers are dear to Lord Ganesha but the yellow saffron flower named Marigold is a particular favorite.

In particular, Red Genda or Red Marigold flowers are seen as Lord Vinayak’s favorite.

This flower is special because it is the only flowers of the Hindu deities that can be divided into its petals.

Other than that, Marigold flowers represent positivity and are auspicious.

Palash (Goddess Saraswati)

Goddess Saraswati is the Goddess of knowledge, who is also particularly fond of white flowers.

 Which is why the worship of Goddess Saraswati is considered incomplete without the presence of Palash flowers, which are her favorite.

These beautiful flowers resonate knowledge and creativity hence blends perfectly with the goddess of wisdom.

Tulsi (Lord Krishna)
Tulsi is a medicinal plant that is both used a flower and an auspicious leaf for the worship of Lord Krishna.

Due to his fondness for this plant, it is present in most of the temples as Prasada.

Hence, Tulsi is also known as Krishna tulsi.

Other flowers beloved by Lord Krishna includes blue Lotus and coral flowers.

Akanda (Lord Shiva)

This gorgeous but unique looking flower is also called the Crown Flower which is considered Shiva’s favorite because of its color and shape.

This poisonous flower is therefore a must-have ingredient for Shiva’s Puja and its auspiciousness can be determined by it being used in pujas – specially offered to Mahadeva, the destroyer for his puja.

Jasmine (Lord Hanuman)

Although Jasmine flowers are known for its fragrance and used for its medicinal properties, these flowers being the favorite of Lord Hanuman holds religious importance.

According to rituals, he is supposed to be offered five Jasmine flowers, also known as Chameli.

Offering Jasmine oil along with sindoor or vermilion to him also helps in warding off evils from your life.

Why Flowers are Offered to Hindu Deities?

According to Sharad Tilk book, ”Daivasya Mastakam Kuryatkusumopahitam Sada” that states, the heads of all the deities must always be festooned with fresh flowers.

According to Hindu scriptures, each Hindu deity is known for their favorite flower that they love the most.

During the rituals, it is believed that gods and goddesses descend on earth and devotees adore them by offering various bhogs, flowers, and itar.

It is believed that scents from these bring them to the place of worship.

All scented things like incense, flowers, itar are used in worshipping and rituals. Besides, devotees believe that if you rever Gods with their favorite flower, then the God blesses that person and also fulfills all their desires.

1. Krishna / श्री कृष्णा

Krishna or Kanha is one of the eight avatars of Vishnu, and his imperative role is mentioned in the Mahabharata epic.

Blue and yellow flowers, especially fragrant ones appeal the most to this diety.

Mantra for Offering: || Om namo bhagvate vasudevay ||

Flowers: Oleander / Kaner, Asian pigeonwings / Aparajita, Night flowering Jasmine / Parijat, Burflower / Kadamba, Lotus / Kamal, and Ketaki.

2. Vishnu / विष्णु

Vishnu is among the Trimurti, the triple deity of the supreme divinity of  Brahma, Vishnu, and Mahesh.

He is said to be the preserver of the universe, restoring the equilibrium of good and evil.

Among the four arms, Vishnu holds Kamal in one.

Mantra for Offering: || Hari Om namo narayanaya ||

Flowers: Lotus / Kamal, Maulsiri, Juhi, Ashoka, Rangoon Creeper / Malati, Canna Lily / Vyjayanti, and Ketaki

3. Saraswati / सरस्वती

Saraswati is the goddess of wisdom, knowledge, learning, and music.

She is depicted as sitting atop a lotus flower, in a white saree with veena.

Worshipping Goddess Saraswati bestows with a clear vision, creativity, wisdom, and eternal knowledge.

Mantra for offering: || Ya devi sarvabhuteshu, vidya rupen sansthita, namastasye namastasye namastasye namo namah ||

Flowers: Oleander / Kaner, Marigold / Genda, White Rose / Safed Gulab, Champa / White frangipani, and Yellow Palash

4. Ganesha / गणेश

According to scripture Acha Bhushan Granth, Ganesha can be worshipped with all the flowers except for tulasidal.

As per the Padmapurana Acharatna”na Tulasya Ganadhipam” Ganesha should never be revered with basil leaves and flowers.

Mantra for Offering: || Vakratunda mahakaya suryakoti samaprabha, nirvighnam kurumedeva sarvakaaryeshu sarvadaa ||

Flowers: Marigold and Red Hibiscus

5. Shani Dev / शनिदेव

Shani dev is the God of justice and karma in Hinduism, and rewards or punishes people according to their deeds. Besides, Shani dev also wards off hurdles from devotee’s life.

This diety is fond of dark colors, so you can use any deep blue flowers for worship and rituals.

Mantra for Offering: || Om sham shanishcharay namah ||

Flowers: Shameplant / Blue Lajwanti

6. Shiva / शिव जी / महादेव

Shiva or Mahadev is the third lord among the Trimurti and has been depicted as sanharkarta and srijankarta, as he destroys the world when it reaches a peak and then re-creates it.

Devotee can offer all the flowers to shiva, except for the ketaki and champa.

Mantra for Offering: || Shree shivay namastubhyam ||

Flowers: Crown Flower / Aak / Madaar, Asian pigeonwings / Aparajita, Night Flowering Jasmine / Parijat / Harsingar, Jimsonweed / Datura, and Nerium Oleander / Pile Kaner

7. Maa Durgaa / दुर्गा माँ

Deity Durga is an incarnation of parvati who is fond of red color.

She is portrayed with a red saree, and red bangles.

Any flower in red color can be offered.

Offering a garland of red roses or red hibiscus to deity Durga removes all troubles in one’s life.

Mantra for Offering: || Shree Durgaye Namah ||

Flowers: Hibiscus / Jason, Red Rose / Laal Gulab, and Palash

8. Laxmi / लक्ष्मी देवी

Lakshmi is a deity of wealth, prosperity, and good fortune.

She is portrayed with four arms, standing on a large lotus flower, and adorned with gold jewels.

Offer white and red-hued flowers during worship and rituals.

Mantra for Offering: || Om shree mahalakshmayi cha vidmahe, vishnu patnyai cha Dheemahi, Tanno Lakshmi Prachodayat ||

Flowers: White Lotus / Safed kamal, White Rose / Safed gulab, Laal Gulaab / Red rose, Rajnigandha / Tuberose, and Mogra / Arabian Jasmine

9. Hanuman / हनुमान

Shree Hanuman needs no introduction, who is a vanar companion and ardent devotee of Lord Rama as depicted in Ramayana.

To please Lord Hanuman, you can offer white fragrant flowers along with vermilion while chanting Hanuman Chalisa.

Mantra for Offering: Om Hanumate Namah

Flowers: Jasmine and Crown Flower / Rui

Why Hindus Worship Lotus Flower!

Nature is beautiful, everything which is a part of nature is very beautiful.

I alone is not saying this, but every alive creature love nature.

These alive creatures are not only attractive, but also equipped with many such qualities which are used for human interest.

Some of them are considered to be completely divine powers.

In Hindu culture and written in Vedic Hindu Puranas that Peepal and Banyan trees are considered symbols of divine powers; in almost all the holy rivers, there is divine existence, but if you talk about flowers, then there is a flower which few people know about it but It does not reduce its supernatural power.

In our Hindu culture, Lotus flower is symbolic to Brahma ji ka Kamal, it is considered to be the flower of Brahma ji, the creator of the universe himself.

The flower which is found on the heights of the Himalayas also holds its mythological significance.

It is believed that this flower is full of human desires.

This lotus is white colored, which is really attractive to look at, it is also mentioned in many mythological stories.

In our Vedic Hindu Puranas, there are many mythological beliefs associated with Brahma ji Ka Kamal, in which one of them is, ‘according to the creator of the universe, which is Brahma ji only, is born from a lotus flower (Kamal ke Phool se), and then Brahma ji created this universe.

According to another legend story, when the Pandavas were on the exile in the forest, Draupadi (wife of Pandawas) was also with them during their exile.

It was difficult for her to vanish past memories related with the Kauravas, and other difficulties of staying in the forests were also giving mental distress.

But one day when she saw one golden lotus flower flowing in wave of water, all her pain turned into joy, she gained some kind of spiritual energy in her.

She immediately sent her most devoted husband Duryodhana to discover that golden flower, during this chase, Duryodhana met Hanuman ji.

A very popular belief related to Lotus Flower which says any person who sees this flower, his or her desires are fulfilled.

But it is not easy to see it as it blooms in late nights for a few hours and that too once in 14 years.

Importance of Flowers in Puja

We all know the importance of flowers in our life whether it’s about puja or for the environment, though the importance of flowers in nature is everywhere.

They provide natural medicine (Ayurved) for humans as well as animals and aid in a plant’s reproduction by enticing outside pollinators.

But we use flowers in a different way, such as we use traditional flowers for our daily worship or puja.

Offering Flowers for Puja is an important part of Hindu worship, we offer different flowers to different deities such as Jasmine is offered to Lord Hanuman, Marigold is commonly used in pujas but particularly offered to Lord Vishnu, Lotus flower is known for Goddess Laxmi.

Caption – Flowers for puja, Patrika

One of the most primitive tenets of Hinduism to worship is the elements of nature “Prakriti” and Flowers are one of the most beautiful things found in nature.

Although puja flowers are also used for the decoration in the puja area and puja room.

mostly use assorted flowers for every puja, but there are some flowers which may not be used for pooja such as Champaka, which is also known as golden Champa or yellow Champak.

This flower is not used while worshipping Lord Shiva.

The science behind offering the flowers, leaves, scents and other aromatic substances is that these all have the characteristics of attracting positive and divine vibes from the surroundings.

People consider flowers to be a manifestation of their devotional emotion “Astha” and offering of flowers for puja is a prayer that the deity grants us good health, wealth and prosperity.

God’s Favorite Flower

Both in worship and in portrayals of the divine, hindus are infatuated with flowers.

The very name of the Hindu worship ritual, puja, can be translated as “flower act.”

Elaborate and simple garlands, fragrant whole flowers and piles of petals daily rain over Deities in temple, home and village shrines wherever Hindus worship.

Though any available flower is auspicious for puja, Gods and Goddesses are said to have specific likes and dislikes of certain species.

Of all the myriad buds and blooms, the most revered and esteemed–by God and man–is the magnificent lotus

The sacred lotus, known botanically as nelumbo nucifera (literally “nut-bearing aquatic”), comprises the most important and attractive wetland plant species in India.

Occuring widely in temperate, sub-temperate, tropical and sub-tropical regions ranging from Kashmir to Kanyakumari, the flower has become a symbol of India itself–the leaves representing the flourishing of surrounding cultures, religions and countries.

The plant exhibits enormous phenotypic diversity, with numerous racial variants in different shapes, sizes and common shades of pink and white flowers having 16?160 petals.

A pond of mature lotus is a stunning sight. Quite unlike water lilies, whose leaves rest on the water’s surface, lotus leaves rise above the water on stems from 1 to 8 feet tall.

And the flowers, 4 to 10 inches in diameter, usually rise above the leaves.

The lotus is the foremost symbol of beauty, prosperity and fertility.

According to Hinduism, within each human inhabiting the earth is the spirit of the sacred lotus.

It represents eternity, purity and divinity and is widely used as a symbol of life, fertility, ever-renewing youth and to describe feminine beauty, especially the eyes.

One of the most common metaphysical analogies compares the lotus’ perennial rise to faultless beauty from a miry environment to the evolution of man’s consciousness–from instinctive impulses to spiritual liberation.

In the Bhagavad Gita, man is adjured to be like the lotus–he should work without attachment, dedicating his actions to God–untouched by sin like water on a lotus leaf and the beautiful flower standing high above the mud and water.

In the postures of hatha yoga, the lotus position, padmasana, is adopted by those striving to reach the highest level of consciousness, which itself is found in the thousand-petalled lotus chakra at the top of the head.

For Buddhists, lotus symbolizes the most exalted state of man–his head held high, pure and undefiled in the sun, his feet rooted in the world of experience.

The bloom of legends: Few flowers have found such prominence in legends and symbolism as the lotus.

The Hindu, Buddhist and Jain religions have amassed a wealth of fascinating stories about the species.

In Hinduism, the flower is said to be the center of the universe.

There is a story that it arose from the navel of God Vishnu, and at the center of the flower sat Brahma.

Each of the three Brahminical deities, Brahma (the Creator), Vishnu (the Protector) and Siva (the Merger) are associated with this plant.

The lotus is associated with Prajapati (Brahma) in the cosmogonic myths of the Brahmana portion of the Taittiriya Upanishad (800 bce).

There are also accounts of the world born through a “Golden Lotus” and Padmakalpa, the Lotus Age in the Padmapurana (678 ce).

Trilok Chandra Majupuria of Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, explains in Religious and Useful Plants of Nepal and India (1989, M. Gupta, Lashkar, India), “The Taittiriya Brahmana describes how Prajapati, desiring to evolve the universe, which was then fluid, saw a lotus-leaf, pushkara parna, coming out of water.

It is described that when divine life-substance was about to put forth the universe, the cosmic waters grew a thousand-petalled lotus flower of pure gold, radiant like the sun.

This was considered to be a doorway, or an opening of the mouth of the womb of the universe.

Hindu texts describe that water represents the procreative aspect of the Absolute, and the cosmic lotus, the generative.

Thus, lotus is the first product of the creative principle.”

The role of Lord Brahma was to re-create the universe after the great flood on this planet.

In order to create the universe, He used the different parts of the lotus plant.

Goddess Lakshmi, patron of wealth and good fortune, sits on a fully bloomed pink lotus as Her divine seat and holds a lotus in Her right hand [see artwork, right].

It is also mentioned in the Mahabharata that Lakshmi emerged from a lotus which grew from the forehead of Lord Vishnu, and a garland of 108 lotus seeds is today used for the worship of Lakshmi.

The Goddess of Power, Durga, was created by Lord Siva to fight demons and was adorned with a garland of lotus flowers by Varuna. Goddess of Wisdom, Saraswati is associated with the white Lotus.

And virtually every God and Goddess of Hinduism–Brahma, Vishnu, Siva, Lakshmi, Saraswati, Parvati, Durga, Agni, Ganesha, Rama and Surya–are typically shown sitting on the lotus, often holding a lotus flower in their hand.

The lotus which serves thus as the seat of the Deity, signifying their divinity and purity, is called padmasana or kamalasana.

In various regions of India, lotus blossoms are offered in worship of Lakshmi during Deepavali; to Durga in Durgapuja and to Lord Siva during Mahasivaratri.

During these festivals, the demand for lotus flowers is great.

The offering of lotus blooms to the Gods is also depicted through traditional mudras, hand gestures, in the introductory steps of classical Bharata Natyam, as well as other forms of Indian dance.

Scripture indicates at least a 6,000-year association of the lotus with Hindu culture and religion.

It is given profound significance in mythology, epics, scriptures, Sanskrit literature and historical records, and it is the prevailing motif in sculptures, temple carvings, architecture, paintings and cave murals.

Just one example is in Dayal Bagh, Agra, where the marble walls are carved with lotus flowers.

Numerous references to the lotus can be found in the Vedas, Upanishads, Puranas, slokas, kathas and other ancient Sanskrit literature.

The most common Sanskrit names for lotus are Kamala, Padma and Pankaja, and Hindus have always considered the flower highly sacred.

Majupuria tells us, “Lotus is mentioned in the Rig Veda, and it finds frequent mention in the later Samhitas.

In the Rig, two varieties are described: one white (Nelumbo nucifera), the other blue. In the Atharva Veda, the human heart is compared with the lotus flower.

According to the Panchavimsa Brahmana, the flower is born of the light of constellations.

In the Taittiriya, a garland of such lotuses, pundari sraga, is mentioned.

The blue lotus, pushkara, is mentioned in several places in the Rig and still more in the other Vedas.

It is alluded to grow in lakes and is compared to the bowl of the sacrificial ladle due to its shape.

The common use of this variety for decoration is evident from the frequent descriptions of the Asvins, the youthful twin Gods of the dawn, wearing a garland of blue lotus and being called ‘Pushkar Rajas.’ ”

Today, the blue lotus is extremely rare, possibly extinct.

The East Indian lotus is an old-world Asiatic species, widely distributed to many Asiatic oriental countries, such as India, Japan, China, Korea, Thailand, Taiwan and North Australia.

It is also naturalized in Hawaii and, reportedly, in the Volga River delta, where the Volga flows into Caspian sea.

Lord Buddha is said to have been born on a lotus leaf, and the lotus followed the spread of Buddhism to China and Japan.

The relationship of the lotus flower with Hinduism extends beyond the recorded history of both the plant and the religion itself.

The first fossilized record of the lotus has been recorded from the Pleistocene epoch of Kashmir and subsequently from early Tertiary rock of India.

The presence of Nelumbo in the Tertiary period of Assam is professed on the basis of a few impressions of leaves and rhizomes found in a collection from the Eocene bed near Damalgiri.

These records provide strong evidence to support the prevalent view that this species is indigenous to the Indian subcontinent.

Seeds of Nelumbo are known to possess the maximum period of viability among all the flowering plant species. Lotus were once grown in Egypt.

They are now extinct there, but seeds found in a pharaoh’s tomb sprouted after centuries of storage.

Today, lotus can be grown from seed and rhizomes purchased from nurseries or collected in the wild.

In addition to its immense aesthetic and religious significance, this divinely benefic plant has much to offer the world medicinally and nutritionally, as food.

Hindu scriptures say that the Atman dwells in the lotus within the heart.

Visualize within yourself a lotus, centered right within the center of your chest, right within your heart.

Try to mentally feel and see the heart as a lotus flower right within you.

Within the center of the lotus, try to see a small light.

Hindu scriptures state that the Atman within the heart looks like a brilliant light about the size of your thumb–just a small light.

This light is an emanation of your effulgent being.

It is dwelling right within.

The Self God is deeper than that.

The lotus is within the heart, and the Self God dwells deep within that lotus of light.

Goddess of the Lotus: Most Hindu Deities have names inspired by or associated with the lotus, most especially Lakshmi.

She is commonly called:
Padmini, “possessing Lotus;”
Padmesthita, “standing on Lotus;”
Padmavarna, “Lotus colored;”
Padmasambhava, “Lotus born;”
Padmakshi, “eyes like Lotus;”
Padmanana, “face like Lotus;”
Sarasijanilaya, “dwells in lotus;”
Padmapriya, “fond of Lotus”
and Padmahasta, “holds a Lotus
in her hand.”

The Significance of Flowers

Flowers remain an integral part of Hinduism with the main Hindu prayer rites called puja, which literally means “the flower act”.

Flowers are used as an offering to the gods as people believe that by offering flowers, the deity grants good health, wealth and prosperity.

There is a specific flower of each individual god.

It is also said that the fragrance that comes with the flower are what pleases the gods and no Hindu worship is complete without the offering of a specific flower to different deities.

With a slight similarity to Buddhism, the lotus for example, has a deep rooted association with purity, beauty, youthfulness, and fertility.

In the Holy Scripture, The Bhagavad Gita, followers are instructed to model themselves around the lotus flower in order to maintain their sense of purity.

The lotus can be seen in Hindu temples where the goddess of wealth and prosperity, Lakshmi sits on.

Offer her a Lotus flower during Diwali and she in return will grant wealth and good fortune.

One of the most prominent gods, Lord Ganesha favours Marigold flowers.

It is said that Marigold is the only flower of the gods that can be divided into its petals.

It is widely used to make garlands for gods and goddesses in the Hindu religion.

This flower is considered a love charm and is also used in weddings.

Importance of Flowers in Puja ritual

There are subtle frequencies of deities active in the atmosphere.

These frequencies are attracted towards certain flowers.

These frequencies are then emitted back into atmosphere and are then known as ‘pavitrak’.

Before we come to the topic of spiritual benefits of offering flowers, let us first see the difference between frequencies and pavitraks.

* The subtle principle of deities attracted to a flower from space is called frequencies while the same deity principle when gets emited into atmosphere is called as pavitrak.

* The frequencies are subtle most and comparatively more unmanifest (nirgun) form of deity principle while a pavitrak is the subtle and manifest form of the same deity principle.

Let us now see the subtle drawing of a Hibiscus flower .

* The Ganesh principle present in the universe gets attracted towards the central space of the red coloured Hibiscus flower and is emitted in the form of circles.

* The Ganesh principle which is absorbed by the stem of the flower gets emitted through the petals in the atmosphere.

* The stamen of the flower absorbs the Ganesh principle present in the atmosphere and emits the particles which donate vital energy or pranshakti.

* The Hibiscus flower is of raja-sattva nature. As a result divine energy (shakti) and divine consciousness (chaitanya) are emitted from its petals.

Thus this subtle drawing must have made it clear to our viewers as to how the frequencies of deity principles are attracted towards flower and how through the medium of various parts of flower the same deity frequencies are emitted in the atmosphere in the form of pavitraks.

Thus it is quite clear that the emission or projection of deity principles and pavitraks is a process taking place at a spiritual level.

The effect of this process is multifold. One of this is reduction in the strengh of raja-tama principle present in the atmosphere.

The negative energies present in the atmosphere get distressed due to the deity principle pavitraks projected by the sattvik flowers.

Their tama component dominated energy or what we call as black energy is either reduce or gets destroyed.

In short the sattvik flowers fight with the negative energies present in the atmosphere by emitting frequencies of deity principles.

Such flowers when brought into contact with a person suffering from the distress of negative energy then the negative energy which has entered the person subsides.

To understand this topic clearly will have to first know the distinction between ‘Negative energy’ and ‘black energy’.

There are some distressing energies in the atmosphere which trouble us.

They are subtle in nature.

They are called ‘negative energies’.

The energy of deities is known by the terms such as chaitanya (divine consciousness), bliss(ananda) and shanti (peace) while the energy of negative energies is known as ‘black energy’.

The deities are sattva predominant while the negative energies are tama predominant!

A deity looks after our welfare whereas negative energies does us harm.

When a person is severely affected by the negative energy distress, his control over his mind, body and intellect is reduced and that of negative energy is increased.

This affects the thoughts, emotions etc of the person.

Such an affected person when come in contact with an atmosphere predominant in sattva component then there is friction between the positive sattva atmosphere and negative energy.

This can manifest in various forms.

This may be in the form of a simple thought of leaving the place or a violent reaction. Sometimes these destructive thoughts can become manifest on a physical level.

Under such circumstances the negative energy may manifest grossly in the form of sudden burst of anger, shouting, throwing of objects and not only this, it may take any form of destruction such as plundering and breaking of surrounding things.

This must have definitely introduced you to the topic of distressing or negative energies. So let us move back to the original topic where we are going to see the effect of sattvik flowers on negative energies.

Let us see the effect of hibiscus flower on the woman suffering from distress of negative energy in the subtle dimension with the help of a subtle drawing.

* Shri Ganesh principle frequencies present in the universe get attracted to the Hibiscus flower.

* The attracted frequencies get converted into shakti and chaitanya and are emitted in the atmosphere.

* The emitted energy is of destroyer type that it reduces the covering of black energy generated by the negative energy around the woman.

* There is formation of chaitanya in the heart of the woman as a result of emitted chaitanya.

* The subtle particles of destroyer form of energy are projected in the atmosphere.

This subtle drawing must have helped you to understand the importance of sattvik flowers.

When we offer such sattvik flowers to a deity during puja then the deity frequencies are emitted from the flowers on a large scale.

This not only benefits the worshipper but also makes the surrounding atmosphere sattvik.

Why is a specific flower offered to a deity?

Normally we have a concept that a deity is to be offered only that flower which he/she likes.

But is it really so?

Let us see the actual reason according to science of spirituality.

A flower has a particular colour and a special fragrance.

On a subtle level the colour and fragrance particles present in the flower have a capacity to attract the principles of a specific deity which benefits the worshipper.

That is the principle behind offering specific flowers to a deity and not because they like it.

To cite some examples white flower like that of Dhatura is offered to Lord Shiva, red cloured flower like Hibiscus for Shri Ganesh, and red coloured flowers for Durga devi also.

If the worshipper has more spiritual emotion for these flowers then the frequencies of deities get more activated through the medium of these flowers and work for the worshipper directly.

Why should one only offer fresh flowers to the deity?

According to religious scriptures on the science of spirituality, only proper objects should be offered to a deity and the flowers are no exception.

Therefore the use of dried out flowers or those infested with insects are prohibited in the ritualistic worship of a deity.

There are two reasons for this according to spiritual science:

* Whatever we offer to a deity is accepted by the deity on a subtle level and then They get pleased and bless us. Therefore whatever we offer to Them has to be best.

* The capacity of a flower to absorb and emit the frequencies of deity and sattvik frequencies gets reduced if it is dry or infested with insects.

Another important thing is that it is also prohibited to offer the flower which is already been offered (nirmalya) that is which has become stale.

The basic science underlying this is that the flowers are used mainly for their colours rather than their fragrance.

When the flowers become stale its colour changes.

And as the colour changes the reception of frequencies of deity decreases and later stops.

Therefore we have to offer fresh flowers to a deity on a daily basis after removing the flowers offered on the previous day.

Besides this there are other prohibitions applicable to flowers to be offered to a deity.

* We should not offer a flower which we have touched to the body, have handled with left hand or have taken smell of it.

* We should not offer a flower which is without any fragrance or has very strong fragrance has fallen on the ground or on unclean surface.

* A flower which is not bloomed up fully, or has its petals withered should not be offered.

* It is not advisable to offer flower buds to deities as per spiritual science.

* Flowers stolen from another’s house thus making them unhappy are not to be offered.

* The flowers plucked with undergarmants still on, or the one which are wrapped in the leaves of arka (rui or calatropis) or rend leaves should not be offered to a deity.

* It is prohibited to offer flower which is dipped or washed in water.

Thus it is to be noticed that such flowers when offered may be actually harmful rather than being beneficial.

Therefore it can be seen that an appropriate substance when offered in appropriate form as mentioned in the scriptures to a deity helps us to get more benefit of deity principles and it also leads to purification of the place of worship.

Up till now we have seen the prohibitions to the flowers being offered to a deity.

Now let us se some exceptions to the prohibitions

* Flower buds are not offered to a deity but lotus is an exception.

* The flowers brought from the house of a gardener can not be called as stale.

* Though we do not wash the flowers with water by dipping them but we can always sprinkle them with it.

Why it is not advisable to pluck buds after the sunset?

The life cycle of the living beings runs according to the cycle of nature.

Taking this into consideration the right time for every thing in our life has been considered in Sanatan Hindu Dharma.

Similarly there is definite time for pluking of flowers according to scriptures.

Nowadays some people collect buds by pluking them on the prvious evening.

But this incorrect as per the science of spirituality.

Now let us understand why it is not advisable to pluck buds after the sunset.

At Bramha muhurta the pavitraks of deities are projected on a large scale on to the earth.

These pavitraks get attracted on a greater scale towards those flowers who have the capacity to attract pavitraks of particular deity.

The sunlight causes the disintegration of raja-tama particles present in the atmosphere.

Therefore the atmosphere before the sunset is more sattvik as compared to that after the sunset.

After the sunset the strength of the negative energies in the atmosphere increases which leads to increase in the distressing frequencies in the atmosphere.

Therefore the buds are covered by raja-tama particles.

Thus their capacity to attract the deity principle is reduced.

Hence the buds should not be plucked after the sunset.

However there are some exceptions to this rule.

For example there are some flowers whose buds start opening at the sunset itself like those of bela, chameli and rajanigandha etc.

These buds eagerly wait for the Bramha muhurta.

It is as if they are eager to surrender themselves at the feet of the deity.

These flowers have more fragrance when compared to other flowers.

That is why the deity principles get attracted towards these flowers in large amount.

Now let us see the important rules of plucking flowers.

* Do not pluck the flowers without taking bath

* Do not pluck flowers for puja ritual with your shoes on.

* Express gratitude to the plant from which you are going to pluck the flowers.

* While pluking flowers for puja ritual pray to the deity that the objective of offering the flowers for puja be fulfilled.

* Pluck only that number of flowers as is necessary for the the puja ritual. Do the chanting of your favourite deity while plucking the flowers.

Which flowers should be offered to a particular deity?

Thus we have seen why a particular flower is offered to a particular deity, what is the appropriate time of pluking the flowers according to science of spirituality.

The spiritual science has also shown us that a particular deity needs to be offered a particular flower in particular number.

Let us understand this with the help of the points below.

* Shri Durga devi should be offered either 1 or 9 Jasmine flowers

* Lord Shiva should be offered 10 flowers of Rajnigandha

* Shri Ram should be offered 4 flowers of Jai.

* Lord Hanuman should be offered 5 flowers of Chameli

* Shri Krushna should be offered 3 flowers of Krushna Kamal.

Why is a specific flower offered to a specific God ?

Offering flowers is an important part of the Hindu tradition.

Many people like to decorate Deities with flowers in temples at their homes, as it gives a divine look to the God (Deity).

Specific flowers have greater ability to attract the pavitraks  (Subtlemost particles) of specific Deities when compared with other flowers.

When such flowers are offered to the God, we benefit immediately from the God’s Chaitanya in the Idol.

Let us find out in detail through this article, how does this act of offering flowers to God is spiritually beneficial to individual.

1. Which flowers are offered to which God ?

God (Deity)    Flower to be offered            God (Deity)    Flower to be offered

1. Brahma      Tagar (Crep Jasmine)        

2. Shriram      Jai (Common jasmine)

3. Hanuman  Chameli (Jasmine)             

4. Shiva         Nishigandha (Tuberose)   

5. Shri Saraswati      Swastik         

6. Shri Lakshmi        Lotus / Marigold       

7. Shri Mahalakshmi           Shevanti (Chrysanthemum)

8. Shri Mahakali       Kaner (Indian oleander)

9. Shri Durgadevi     Mogra (Arabian jasmine)

10. Shri Ganapati     Hibiscus

11. Dattatreya           Jui (Needle flower jasmine)

12. Shrikrushna       Krushnakamal

2. Why flowers are offered in a specific number and in a specific arrangement ?

The waves emitting from a Deity, the number of flowers that represent the Principle of the Deity and the specific arrangement of the flowers associated with that Principle,

all this helps retain the active waves emitting from the Deity in that arrangement and their emission through the fragrant particles of the flowers as per the need.

The Deity Principle is attracted swiftly to a specific number of the specific flowers.

Progressing through the three paths of Yoga – Karmayoga, Bhaktiyoga and Dnyanyoga, the individual moves from ‘Many to one’, that is, towards the nirguntattva.

Saptadevata  Number of flowers to be offered    Arrangement of flowers (Note 1)

1. Shiva         0 (Note 2) or 10         Filled and round (Dormant energy)

2. Shri Durgadevi (Note 3) 1 or 9  Hollow and round (Active energy)

3. Shrikrushna         3          Hollow and elliptical

4. Shriram      4          Hollow and elliptical

5. Hanuman  5          Hollow and elliptical

6. Datta          7          Hollow and rhomboid

7. Shri Ganapati       8          Hollow and rhomboid

Note 1 – By offering flowers in arrangements that attract waves of ichha (Desire),

kriya (Action) and dnyan (Knowledge),

greater benefit of the associated Deity Principle is obtained.

(For example, Dnyan waves are attracted towards a round arrangement; kriya waves are attracted towards an elliptical arrangement.)

Note 2 – Zero means offering nothing

Note 3 – Female Deities are forms of Adishakti (Primal Energy) Shri Durgadevi.

Hence, the same arrangement and number (of flowers) should be offered to these Female Deities as offered to Shri Durgadevi.

Brahma is not an Upasyadevata (Deity of worship); that is why, the number of flowers to be offered to Brahma and their arrangement has not been mentioned.

3. Why should the sequence of offering flowers be from bright flowers to white flowers ?

While offering flowers to the pictures / Idols of Deities placed in the temple at home, begin with small bright flowers kept in the platter, followed by medium-size light colour flowers.

Lastly, offer big white flowers. In a conical arrangement, only after offering flowers to Shri Ganapati at the apex of the cone, at the second level, offer flowers to the pictures of superior Male Deities.

Thereafter, offer flowers to the pictures of superior Male Deities.

Thereafter, offer flowers to the Deity’s Female counterpart or sub-forms of the Deity.

Moving from the apex of the cone towards the end symbolizes going from dvait to advait.

Conversely, beginning with the small bright flowers and then offering big white flowers in the end and thereby, merging with the expansive nirgun (Non-materialized) form of God, amounts to performing sagun (Materialized) worship through the medium of flowers and attaining the nirgun.

Instead of the shape / size of the flowers, give importance to the sequence of their colour; because, due to the contact of the colour-waves emitting from the flowers the specific Deity Principle is awakened sooner.

4. Why should a flower be offered with its stalk towards the Deity ?

When offering a flower to a Deity, let its stalk be towards the Deity and the plume be towards us.

Waves of Deities attracted by the stalk have a greater proportion of nirgun waves.

When this flow of nirgun waves enters the stamens and petals, the movement of colour and fragrant particles in them convert the nirgun waves into sagun waves with the help of Pruthvitattva and apatattva.

These sagun waves are emitted towards the individual through the medium of colour and fragrant particles.

Since the physical body of the individual is made of Pruthvitattva and apatattva, the waves transmitted through the medium of colour and fragrant particles are easily imbibed by the individual.

These waves do not cause any distress to the individual.

Instead, the individual is able to imbibe the sagun Chaitanya of the respective Deity to the maximum extent through them.

Various Principles are found united in flowers.

It is the presence of Pruthvitattva that imparts fragrance to the flowers.

Flowers are visible because they have Tejtattva.

They can be felt with the hands since they have Vayutattva.

Therefore, we receive the Deity’s Principle, sattvik waves and Chaitanya through the medium of fragrance, touch or even mere sight of the flowers and garlands made from flowers.

A. When a flower is offered with its stalk towards the Deity, the vibrations emitting from the Deity are attracted to the stalk and are then emitted towards the worshipper : Deity Principle is active in every tree in seed form.

When the stalk of a flower offered to a Deity is towards the Deity, the vibrations emitting from the Deity are attracted to the stalk. From the stalk, through the medium of the petals, they are emitted towards the worshipper.

The action of the petals here is similar to the blades of a fan. Just as the breeze spreads because of the rotation of the blades, the petals function in a similar manner.

Deity Principles are created in the stalk.

Deity Principles are active in the voids of the central portion of the flower

Deity Principles are emitted through the medium of petals.

B. The worshipper receives waves of Shakti in the form of fragrance.

C. Through the picture or the Idol of the Deity, superior level vibrations are emitted; however, the implements or objects used in Deity worship have very little ability to imbibe these vibrations and make them available to the worshipper.

A worshipper who has bhav is able to imbibe them very easily.

D. These vibrations are emitted for 2 to 3 hours by the flowers that have been offered to a Deity. As the flower becomes stale, there is a reduction in the emission activity.

Nowadays, the custom of offering flowers at the Deity’s feet and offering them on the head of the Deity has become prevalent.

When we offer flowers at the Deity’s feet, it helps increase sharanagat-bhav unto the Deity.

Generation of this bhav is important from the perspective of the worshipper’s spiritual progress.

Hence, it is appropriate for an ordinary worshipper to offer flowers at the Deity’s feet.

5. Do not offer petals or decorative flowers to Deities

At some places, instead of flowers, petals are offered to Deities, so that there is no dearth of flowers. However, this is incorrect.

Do not offer artificial, decorative flowers to Deities because they do not attract the Deity Principle; instead, offer fresh sattvik flowers which attract the specific Deity Principle.

6. Why should buds or dried flowers or flowers that have fallen from a tree not be offered to a Deity ?

When a flower is in bud form, the colour and fragrant particles are in an unmanifest form.

When a bud is about to transform into a flower, the movement of Raja particles in the flower gains momentum.

This momentum causes friction and gives rise to warm energy waves that start the transformation of the bud into a flower.

 Eventually, the colour and fragrant particles of the flower attain a manifest state, that is, they become active.

Due to the movement of Raja particles, the waves emitted by the colour and fragrant particles begin to attract the respective Deity’s Principle from the universe towards the flower.

When such flowers (charged with Chaitanya) are offered to Deities, they are pleased and they bestow Chaitanya on the individual.

Conversely, when a flower begins to dry up, the movement of Raja particles slows down and it initiates the deterioration of vitality (life force) in the flower.

As a result, the ability of the colour and fragrant particles to remain active within such a flower becomes less and the flower gradually dies.

Such flowers, that have dried or fallen from a tree, and buds, due to inactivity of colour and fragrant particles within them, become incapable of attracting waves of Chaitanya of the respective Deity from the universe.

This is the reason why there is maximum possibility of such flowers being attacked by negative energies or being enveloped with layers of black covering.

When such flowers, devoid of Chaitanya, are offered to Deity, the benefit of Chaitanya the individual gets is minimal.

Hence, do not offer buds or dried flowers or flowers that have fallen from trees to a Deity.

7. How should the flowers that are to be offered to a Deity be plucked ?

The tubular section adjoining the petals is known as the stalk.

The inertia-laden part behind the stalk is known as thesepal.

The hidden sound in the sepal is laden with inertia, meaning, it is impact-oriented. Whereas, the sound in the void of the stalk is porous; meaning, it is associated with vayu.

That is why, these are at the forefront in carrying Chaitanya with them.

Do not pluck flowers from the stalk adjoining the flower or stalk of the flower; because, sometimes this breaks the petals, and the ability of the flower to absorb and emit Chaitanya reduces.

In some flowers, besides the stalk adjoining its petals, there is a small green part which is in fused below the stalk.

Pluck the flowers from this point.

In flowers such as Barleria prionitis (commonly known as porcupine flower) or Crep jasmine, these small sepals are found attached below the stalks.

Break them, because these sepals create an obstacle in the transmission of the Deity’s Chaitanya towards the stalk.

These sepals contain inertia or the Pruthvitattva.

Hence, their ability to carry Chaitanya is very little.

If they are allowed to remain with the flowers, then through their touch, they lower the functioning ability of the stalk to carry Chaitanya.

As a result, the worshipper is unable to obtain the desired benefit of Chaitanya emitting from the Deities.

Hence, offer flowers to the Deity only after removing these lower sepals.’

8. Why should we not smell the flowers that are to be offered to a Deity ?

Flowers have the ability to absorb and emit the Deity Principle.

When a individual smells the flowers, the ichha-shakti associated with its fragrance in the form of desire enters the subtle chamber of the flower through exhalation.

This reduces the functioning ability of the flower.

When we smell a flower, the natural Sattva component in it also reduces.

Offering such flowers to the Idol of a Deity gives rise to the possibility of the Idol getting charged with Raja-Tama components.

This creates an obstruction in the emission of Chaitanya particles that appear in the Idol for the benefit of the devotees.

As a result, there is less emission of Chaitanya (for the society).

Hence, in a way, smelling flowers to be offered to a Deity is considered a sin.

Flowers in the Bhagavad Gita and Their Symbolism for Hinduism

Learn about the profound symbolism and spiritual significance of nature for millions of Hindus.

The Bhagavad Gita shines as a guiding star in the heart of Hindu philosophy.

This monumental scripture goes beyond just a dialogue between Lord Krishna and Prince Arjuna; it intricately sketches the broader contours of life’s complexities, existential conundrums, and the multiple avenues that lead toward the ultimate truth.

Amidst this cosmic conversation, nature is a powerful symbol with a particular emphasis on flowers.

Their fragile forms, radiant colors, and fleeting lives are poetic reminders of life’s transient nature contrasted against the unchanging, eternal spirit.

The Omnipresence of Nature in the Scriptures

Nature’s grand symphony, melodious tunes, and rhythmic cycles have been an ever-present motif in Hindu scriptures.

Each element, be it a rustling leaf, a flowing river, or an imposing mountain peak, and indeed every unfurling petal, holds without a narrative, a moral insight, or an emblematic symbolism.

The Bhagavad Gita, considered the crown jewel of spiritual literature, frequently uses the imagery of nature, especially the enigmatic world of flowers,

utilizing them not just for their literal beauty but as powerful metaphors that distill vast spiritual philosophies into comprehensible insights encapsulating the nuances of life, duty, and cosmic truths.

Significance of Flowers in Hinduism Rituals and Celebrations

Every Hindu festival is a sensory delight, painted in vivid colors and fragrances.

And this picture would indeed be lackluster without the inclusion of flowers.

Flowers are pivotal, brimming with emotions, aspirations, and spiritual fervor.

Whether it’s the delicate floral patterns of Rangoli gracing doorsteps during Diwali, the aromatic garlands that drape deities in temples and worship places, or the petal showers during wedding symbolizing blessings and prosperity, flowers are inextricably woven into the ceremonial ethos of Hinduism.

They bear mute testimony to life’s diverse shades, encompassing joy, hope, reverence, and a heart’s devout outpouring.

Flowers as Symbols of Divinity and Purity

The multifaceted realm of Hindu practices and ceremonies holds flowers in the highest regard, venerating them as tangible manifestations of purity, innocence, and divinity.

Their ephemeral beauty serves as a poignant reminder of life’s fleeting moments, while their pristine core symbolizes the unsullied soul seeking moksha (liberation).

When flowers are laid at sacred alters or offered in the hands of statues representing gods and goddesses,

it’s more than a ritualistic act.

It’s a symbolic gesture reflecting the devotee’s pure-hearted devotion,

surrender to the divine, and aspiration to transcend the mortal confines and merely with the infinite.

10 Flowers Mentioned in the Bhagavad Gita

Night Jasmine – Parijaat (Har Singaar – Nyctanthes arbor-tristis)

In the twilight hues, the night jasmine or Parijaat, gradient from white to orange, symbolizes the fusion of earthly existence with celestial lore.

The Bhagavad Gita mentions the flower, highlighting the eternal life cycle and rebirth.

Night Jasmine

Its spiritual essence is deepened by its ties to Lord Krishna.

Mythology tells of the rivalry between Krishna’s wives, Rukmini and Satyabhama, over the night jasmine tree and of Krishna’s divine dance beneath it with the Gopis, accompanied by his melodic flute.

The flower embodies eternal love, divine romance, and the universe’s perpetual dance, echoing themes of longing, fulfillment, and the sacred interplay of separation and union.

Plumeria – Champak (Magnolia/Michelia champaca)

With its mesmerizing aroma, the Plumeria is more than just a beautiful bloom.

Often termed the ‘fragrance of the divine,’ it holds a special place in Hindu traditions, including mentions in the Bhagavad Gita.

This scripture likens the flower to resilience, devotion, and the bond between Atman (soul) and Paramatman (universal soul).

ChampakIts golden-yellow petals symbolize hope and enduring faith, further emphasized by its association with Lord Krishna, the cosmic guide.

Legend recalls Krishna and Radha’s divine love beneath Plumeria trees.

Krishna, known to adorn his crown with these flowers, often reveled in Vrindavan’s forests, where the Plumeria’s scent set the stage for his divine plays, immersing all in spiritual euphoria.

Lotus (Kamal – Nelumbo nucifera)

The Lotus, emblematic of grace and spiritual ascent, is central to Hindu philosophy. Emerging from murk to sunlight mirrors the soul’s journey from ignorance to enlightenment.

The Bhagavad Gita reveres the Lotus, using it to depict hope, purity, and detachment.

Lord Krishna emphasizes the lotus leaf’s trait of staying untouched by water, suggesting humans act without attachment.

brahmaṇyādhāya karmāṇi saṅgaṁ tyaktvā karoti yaḥ

lipyate na sa pāpena padma-patram ivāmbhasā – Bhagavad Gita – Chapter 5, Verse 10

– Those who dedicate their actions to God, abandoning all attachment, remain untouched by sin, just as a lotus leaf is untouched by water.

Night Jasmine

The Lotus’s ties with the Hindu trinity further amplify its importance.

Lords Vishnu and Brahma are often shown seated on a lotus, and Goddess Lakshmi, symbolizing prosperity, is associated with this revered bloom.

Similarly, the Sun God, Surya, who represents wisdom, is linked with the Lotus.

As its petals open at dawn, it evokes the eternal union of light and enlightenment.

Knowing all this, it comes as no surprise that the Lotus is the national flower of India. This ‘Flower of the Creator’ contains a deep symbolism.

Read more about the ‘Symbolism of Indian Flowers’.

Kanak Champa (Karnikar – Pterospermum acerifolium)

Often depicted in artistic rendering and ancient murals, Kanak Champa, or the Karnikar flower, has captured the imagination of poets and sages alike.

A standout mention of this beautiful flower is in its association with the divine Lord Krishna.

An epitome of elegance, its petals are imagined as earrings, gracefully accentuating Lord Krishna’s visage.

barhāpīḍaṁ naṭa-vara-vapuḥ karṇayoḥ karṇikāraṁ

bibhrad vāsaḥ kanaka-kapiśaṁ vaijayantīṁ ca mālām

randhrān veṇor adhara-sudhayāpūrayan gopa-vṛndair

vṛndāraṇyaṁ sva-pada-ramaṇaṁ prāviśad gīta-kīrtiḥ – Bhagavad Gita Chapter 21 Canto 10, Verse 5

– Wearing a peacock-feather ornament upon His head, blue Karnikara flowers on His ears, a yellow garment as brilliant as gold, and the Vaijayanti garland, Lord Krsna exhibited His transcendental form as the greatest of dancers as He entered the forest of Vrndavana, beautifying it with the marks of His footprints.

He filled the holes of His flute with the nectar of His lips, and the cowherd boys sang His glories.

Kanak Champa

The association of Kanak Champa with Lord Krishna is emblematic of the overarching theme of beauty in spirituality.

When Lord Krishna’s life was replete with tales of heroism, love, and divine play, his association with nature was ever-present.

In this, the Kanak Champa stands as a metaphor for the eternal bond shared between the deity and his devotees – a bond that’s both nurturing and all-encompassing.

The very sight of this flower evokes takes of Krishna’s frolics in Vrindavan, his divine melodies, and the mesmerizing allure that captivated the hearts of all.

Madhavi Lata (Madhavi, also known as Hiptage – Helicopter Flower – Hiptage benghalensis)

The forests of Vrindavan, with their lush greenery and tranquil ambiance, are often imagined as being adorned with Madhavi Lata.

This evokes vivid images of Lord Krishna’s divine play, where every tree, grove, and flower silently witnessed his eternal leelas.

Madhavi Lata The delicate tendrils of Madhavi Lata also find its mentions in the Vishnu Purana, one of the eighteen Mahapuranas, accentuating its spiritual connotations further.

In its verses, the Madhavi Lata becomes a metaphor for spiritual longing, the innate human desire to connect with the divine and the intricate dance of creation and dissolution.

Its other name, ‘Atimukta,’ meaning ‘completely liberated,’ is a powerful reminder of the ultimate goal of every soul, meandering through life’s complexities and ever seeking liberation or ‘moksha.’

Kewda (Ketaki – Pandanus odoratissimus)

The enchanting Kewda, known for its captivating scent, is deeply woven into Hindu rituals and ancient legends, particularly the Bhagavad Gita.

Its significance is heightened by its ties to the divine trinity: Lord Vishnu, Lord Shiva, and Lord Brahma.

“If one offers me with love and devotion a leaf, a flower, fruit, or water, I will accept it”.

Bhagavad Gita 9.26

– A notable tale reveals Lord Brahma’s deception, claiming the Kewda witnessed him finding the top of an endless light pillar, symbolizing Shiva.

Upon learning the falsehood, Shiva cursed the flower.

Stories like this emphasize the balance of creation, preservation, and destruction in the cosmos and human life.

Ketaki flower and Pandanus odoratissimus fruits

 Neel Kamal (Blue Water Lily – Nymphaea nouchali)

Rising from murky waters, the blue lily blooms with a grace that is both ethereal and grounded, encapsulating a journey of ascension from the mundane to the sublime.

Its presence in the Bhagavad Gita reflects its quintessential role in emphasizing virtues of purity, serenity, and spiritual birth.

bhīṣmadroṇataṭā jayadrathajalā gāndhāranīlotpalā

śalyagrāhavatī kṛpena vahanī karṇena velākulā |  – Gita Dhyanam – Part 2- 67

– With Kesava as the helmsman, verily was crossed by the Pandavas the battle-river, whose banks were Bhishma and Drona, whose water was Jayadratha, whose blue lotus was the king of Gandhara, whose crocodile was Salya, whose current was Kripa, whose billow was Karna, whose terrible alligators were Vikarna and Asvatthama, whose whirlpool was Duryodhana

Blue Water Lily The same sentiment reverberates in the Ramayana, one of India’s great epics, where its vivid hues are celebrated and associated with purity and commitment. Its ties to Lord Shiva further enhance its religious stature.

Furthermore, each petal of the Neel kamal tells a tale.

Whether it’s the story of resilience, emerging from the mud yet untouched by its impurities, or the narrative of spiritual growth, reaching enlightenment, this flower is a timeless spiritual guide in Hindu philosophy.

Bhandhook (Midday Flower – Pentapetes phoenicea)

The Bhandhook flower opens its fiery red petals at noon, symbolizing life’s intensity and the divine’s presence.

This vibrant bloom reminds us of transient yet fervent moments, encouraging passionate living.

Pentapetes phoeniceaLord

Krishna’s tales, brimming with love and divinity, link him to the Bhandhook, underscoring eternal love.

Likewise, Lord Ganesh, symbolizing wisdom and resilience, is associated with this flower, emphasizing its role as a symbol of hope and enlightenment.

Mirroring the Sun God’s life-giving essence, the flower’s midday blossoming celebrates life’s energy, its cycles, and the divine rhythm governing the cosmos.

Marigold (Genda – Calendula)

Vibrant and energetic Marigolds are central to Hindu festivities, symbolizing auspiciousness and joy.

These blooms are often linked to Lord Krishna and represent the soul’s desire to connect with the divine.

Scriptures recount marigolds offered to Krishna, signifying love, surrender, and grace.

“Flowers please the mind and grant prosperity. Hence, men with righteous deeds bestowed the name Sumana on them.”

– The Mahabharata book 13, Anusasana Parva Chapter 101, verses 19-21

Marigold In Hindu traditions, marigolds craft torans and decorative hangings for home entrances during festivals, like Diwali.

These torans, beyond aesthetics, repel negativity and welcome positivity.

The Timeless Relevance of Bhagavad Gita’s Floral Metaphors

The Bhagavad Gita uses floral metaphors to convey profound spiritual truths.

Each flower reference in this text symbolizes life lessons, such as the fleeting nature of existence or the pursuit of enlightenment.

In today’s fast-paced digital age, these ancient botanical metaphors offer a grounding perspective.

They remind us to value stillness, simplicity, and spiritual growth as anchors amidst life’s uncertainties.

As we face myriad challenges today, these floral insights from the Bhagavad Gita guide us toward love, detachment, and self-awareness.

Flowers as Bridges to the Divine

In Hinduism, flowers symbolize the bridge between earthly and divine realms, representing the universe’s grandeur.

Their blooming reflects a soul’s journey toward enlightenment, facing challenges just as flowers do.

Each petal conveys life’s eternal cycles, urging reflection on life’s fleeting nature.

Commonly used as offerings, flowers connect humans and divinity.

Specific flowers, like the Lotus and Marigold, guide us toward more profound truths.

They serve as nature’s spiritual guides, inspiring souls to seek enlightenment.

Hinduism vs. Buddhism

You will notice that many flowers that carry symbolism in Hinduism also appear in Buddhist scriptures, like the Tripitaka.

This makes sense since Hinduism and Buddhism have common origins in the culture of Ancient India.

Both religions have many shared beliefs and practices but also pronounced differences.

Still, the strong symbolism of flowers.

Yet the strong symbolism of flowers spans both religions so that- despite the big differences – some connection can be found.

Sacred Blooms: Discover the 10 Favorite Flowers of Hindu Gods

“Flowers please the mind and grant prosperity.

Hence, men with righteous deeds bestowed the name Sumana on them.”

According to this verse from the epic Mahabharata, when a pious man with a pure heart offers flowers to the deities, the deities become gratified and as a result bestow prosperity upon him.

Yes, flowers play a significant role in almost every religious ritual in Hinduism.

Any religious ceremony, be it offering prayers or performing Aarti, is incomplete without flowers.

Worshiping Hindu Gods and Goddesses with Hindu flowers that are mentioned in the Hindu mythology that are not only considered auspicious but have their own importance too is considered to be an auspicious deed and therefore, these flowers are an integral part of every pooja.

Although any type of flower can be offered to any God yet, there are certain ones that happen to be the favorite flowers of Hindu Gods that can bring you good fortune if offered to Hindu Gods and Goddesses for instance, Mahadev’s favourite flower is considered to be Datura.

Know here what flowers God and Goddesses love to get adorned with:

1. Dhatura

According to the Hindu religious text Vamana Purana, when Lord Shiva drank the poison which was churned out of the ocean by the Gods and demons, Dhatura appeared from the chest of Lord Shiva.

Since then, Dhatura has become Lord Shiva’s favorite flower.

Hence, Dhatura is offered to Lord Shiva during Shiv Puja to get rid of the poison of ego, rivalry, envy, and hatred.

While there are some other Shiva flowers like Akand, and Bael Patra, Ketaki flower is never used in the worship of Shiva.

The story of the cursed Ketaki flower serves as a powerful lesson in devotion, integrity, and humility.

Lord Shiva, the destroyer of falsehood, teaches that true devotion is not built upon lies and manipulation but on sincerity and authenticity.

The exclusion of the Ketki flower from Shiva’s offerings serves as a constant reminder of the consequences of deception and the need for genuine reverence in worship.

2. Red Hibiscus

This enchanting and ravishing red-colored flower is offered to Goddess Kali.

It is because the shape of the flower represents Maa Kali’s tongue and it’s red color symbolizes Maa Kali’s fierceness.

Thus, in West Bengal, Goddess Kali is adorned with a garland of 108 red Hibiscus flowers during Kali pooja.

3. Parijata

Parijata flower or Night-flowering coral Jasmine is a divine flower whose roots are in heaven since it is a Vishnu flower.

This flower is believed to be the favorite of Lord Vishnu, Goddess Laxmi, and their incarnations.

According to Hindu mythology, this tree came out as a result of the churning of the ocean by the Gods and demons.

Lord Indra found this tree and brought it to heaven where its beautiful and fragrant flowers spread beneath the tree and pleasured the Gods.

4. Lotus

The Goddess of wealth and prosperity, Laxmi sits on a lotus flower and thus, this flower becomes Goddess Laxmi’s favorite flower.

If you offer a Lotus flower to goddess Laxmi during Diwali or Laxmi pooja, it will make her gratified and in return, she will grant wealth and good fortune.

In fact, if you keep a lotus seed mala or rosary in the temple of your home, it will please Goddess Laxmi.

5. Marigold

All red colored flowers are dear to Lord Ganesha but the saffron yellow flower named Marigold is Lord Ganesha’s favorite flower.

Especially Red Genda or Red Marigold flowers are believed to please the Vinayaka greatly.

This flower is special because it is the only flower of the Hindu deities that can be divided into its petals.

The Marigold’s vibrant petals and its universal appeal make it a fitting emblem of devotion that spans cultures and faiths.

From its cherished place in Hindu rituals, where it embodies the blessings of Goddess Lakshmi, to its recognition in diverse traditions,

the Marigold stands as a testament to the timeless connection between the human spirit and the beauty of the natural world.

6. Palash

The Goddess of knowledge who wears a white saree and sits on a white Lotus, Devi Saraswati is fond of Palash flowers. Although all white colored flowers are liked by Devi Saraswati, Palash flowers are considered to be the essential component in Saraswati puja. In fact, the worship of Devi Saraswati is considered incomplete without Palash flowers.

7. Tulsi

Tulsi, a medicinal plant acts both as a flower and an auspicious leaf which is used in the worship of Lord Krishna.

It is because Tulsi or Basil leaves are loved by Lord Krishna and thus, in most of the temples, Tulsi leaf is also offered as Prasada.

Hence, Tulsi is also known as Krishna Tulsi.

Other flowers like blue Lotus and coral flowers are also loved by Lord Krishna.

Tulsi stands as a unique embodiment of devotion, purity, and the divine within the world of flowers.

Its presence in Hindu rituals, its rich mythological background, and its remarkable medicinal properties all contribute to its status as a god flower.

In gardens, homes, and temples, Tulsi serves as a constant reminder of the harmonious connection between nature, spirituality, and the human spirit.

8. Crown Flower

Lord Shiva’s favorite flower has intrigued devotees and scholars alike for generations, sparking discussions about its symbolism and significance in Hindu mythology.

Many enthusiasts of Hinduism often wonder, “What is Lord Shiva’s favorite flower?” This question has led to various interpretations and cultural practices associated with divine offerings.

With a white and purple shade, this flower is one of Lord Shiva’s favourite flowers, has five petals along with a crown-like ring and hence the name crown flower.

Also known as Akanda, this is a poisonous flower and, therefore is a must-have ingredient for Shiv Puja.

Crown flowers have beautiful shades of purple and though considered to be poisonous, the auspiciousness of the flower can be determined by it being used in pujas and offered to Lord Shiva also popular as the destroyer within the Trimurti.

Lord Shiva’s favorite flower has intrigued devotees and scholars alike for generations, sparking discussions about its symbolism and significance in Hindu mythology.

9. Red Nerium Oleander

Yet another beautiful choice of flowers, these flowers with beautiful hues of pink and are offered to Goddess Durga, Kali, Gauri as well as her other “Roopas”.

This flower is also important in “Tantrik worship” which is yet another important aspect of Hindu mythology.

Even the scrubs of these flowers are important when worshipping the Goddesses and it is also believed that the devotee who takes the path of “Tantra” has to worship and complete the relatedMantra Jaap” near a red Oleander tree.

For those seeking to perform a puja or any other spiritual ritual, you can Send Flowers in India without any hassle.

With the aid of online floral services, the act of offering blooms to the divine has seamlessly merged with the digital era, allowing devotees to express their reverence from anywhere in the world.

10. Jasmine

Although Jasmine flowers are known for their fragrance and medicinal properties, these flowers, besides being considered Lord Hanuman’s favourite flower also hold a religious importance.

Jasmine is loved by Lord Hanuman and according to the ritual, five Chameli or Jasmine flowers should be offered to please Lord Hanuman.

Offering Jasmine oil along with sindoor or vermilion to Lord Hanuman also helps in warding off evils from your life.

Flowers in Hinduism are often associated with spirituality and devotion and therefore when it comes to offering respect to the Gods and Goddesses, flowers are what comes first into our mind.

Delving into the rich tapestry of religious traditions, it becomes clear that the divine realm has a penchant for certain blossoms.

From Lord Shiva’s fondness for the Lotus to Goddess Lakshmi’s preference for Marigolds, the pages of mythology are adorned with tales of which god likes which flower.

In the context of our discussion on divine blooms, it’s fascinating to witness how tradition evolves. 

Online flower Baskets provide a modern platform for devotees to express their devotion virtually, allowing petals of respect to be offered in a digital landscape.

7 Divine Flowers You Must Include While Worshipping Hindu Deities

Flowers play a significant role in every single religious ceremony in Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, and other religions.

Any divine rituals are incomplete without offering flowers, be it daily pooja Arati or Prayers.

From ancient times, people continue to consider worshiping Hindu deities auspicious by offering flowers as this custom has its own greatness.

However, a devotee cannot offer just any flower to the divinities as the divine energy can get furious through the smell of that specific flower.

So, here are some common flowers that you can offer to the gods and goddesses to bring great fortune and prosperity.


Palash flowers have the most quintessential element while worshipping Hindu deities, especially the goddess Saraswati.

As per legends, Goddess Saraswati is generously fond of while-colored flowers, but without Palash, her pooja is considered incomplete.


Marigold is an essential flower requires to worship every Hindu deity. Since Lord Ganesha loves red or saffron-colored flowers a lot, the marigold garland is offered to him as well as to Lord Vishnu during worship.


Lotus flower hols a grade of aestheticism and represent peace and harmony. Due to that, Goddess Laxmi and Saraswati are offered white and pink lotus during their worship to bring good fortune.

Parijata or Indian Magnolia

Night-flowering coral jasmine is another divine flower believed to please Lord Vishnu.

Red Hibiscus

Goddess Kali loves to be worshiped with red hibiscus as the shape of this flower signifies the goddess’s tongue, including the vibrant red color represents Kali Maa‘s fierceness.


It is believed to be the most favored flower of Lord Shiva, also known as Akanda. To gratify Lord Shiva and gain his blessings, one must not miss this element while offering him pooja.


The last most divine flower is jasmine, and without this, any devotion of Hindu deities is half-done. This tiny fragrant flower does not hold only religious significance but also possesses majestic medicinal values. According to legends, Lord HanumanLord Krishna adores the jasmine flower so much

Which Flowers Are Offered To Which God & Goddess & Why?

When ever I perform my Puja at home, we always offer flowers. 

Recently my mum had told me to offer Lord Ganesh a red flower. 

That got me thinking… we know there are certain things we do when we make offering to different gods and goddesses, for example putting Tulsi leaves in offerings for Lord Vishnu. 

I wanted to find out a bit more about flowers, why do we offer flowers and are there certain flowers we offer certain deities.

Gods and goddesses are divine beings and reside in the celestial world. 

Their divine bodies have the elements of air.

They have been known to have a powerful sense of smell, and are attracted to beautiful fragrances.

When we perform ceremonies and rituals we invite the god or goddesses into our homes, making offerings which they are attracted to or please them.

When they descend on our planet they would naturally be drawn to the smell of flowers, perfumes and even the incense we burn.

Each deity has there own frequencies which are attracted to certain flowers.

“Pavitrak” is a principal that when they receive the frequencies the deity sends back the frequencies to the atmosphere, and negative energies are destroyed.

Each god and goddesses like us humans have their preferences of colours, scent, food and flowers, even types of leaves.

In some scriptures they even tell us the number of flowers or leaves to be offered.

Lord Shiva preference if bel leaves, Lord Vishnu Tulsi and for Lord Ganesh blades of grass.

A common number is offering five which relate to the Panchabootas or five elements.

The scientific rationale behind offering flowers is that they raise positive vibrations within or senses.

This also helps to cleanse the puja area.

Mango leaves is particularly a leaf which gathers positive vibes, hence it is a leaf that is used in toran.

When offering flowers we should never pluck flowers in the evening or darkness.

We should not offer flowers fallen on the ground.

Fallen flowers are dead and offered to mother earth.

We should not offer flowers taken from someone without permission.

Flowers with thorns should not be offered.

We should not wash flowers with water and make an offering.

While offering flowers use all five fingers.

Usually they are offered at the feet of the deity. 

So which flower do I offer to which god or goddess?

Ganesha- Red flowers, his favourite is red Hibiscus and blades of grass in numbers of 1,3,5,7.

Lord Shiva and goddess Parvati White flowers, bel leaves

Lord Vishnu is very fond of pink Lotus flowers, tulsi leaves are very dear to Lord Vishnu is numbers of 1,3,5,7,9

Lord Rama and Lord Hanuman Jasmine flowers

Lord Krishna Blue Lotus, and tulsi leaves

Goddess Saraswati Any white flower

Goddess Durga Jasmin

Goddess Lakshmi Pink Lotus, yellow marigold

Goddess Kali Yellow flowers 

Our Hindu worship ritual, puja, literally means “the flower act,” and it often calls to attention the high place within our persons.

Hinduism uses the lotus to reflect that high place within us all.

The devotee in a state of purity offers flowers to the deities finds that the deities become gratified with him, as the consequences of such gratification bestow prosperity on him.